Like an old-fashioned three-legged race, the business and technology sides of any company are running today with the left leg of one tied to the right leg of the other. Some companies understand that and run well; some don't. The top
executives interviewed in this book (see overflow page for a partial list) know where competitive leaders are headed.
Winning the Three Legged Race is the first major output of the new Business Technology Management (BTM) Institute, reflecting insights from world-class experts in industry and academia. It gives enterprise, line-of-business, and IT leaders a powerful framework for optimizing areas critical to producing sustainable value from technology:
1. Strategy, planning, and management.
2. Technology investment.
3. Strategic enterprise architecture.
4. Governance and organization.
For each area, the authors identify implications for ordered processes, organizational structures, information requirements, and technology. Winning the Three Legged Race introduces the BTM Maturity Model: a breakthrough benchmark for setting priorities and mapping effective change paths. The authors support their framework with up-to-the-minute data, new case studies, executive interviews, and Top 10 Action Lists that empower decision-makers to act--and get results.
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About the Authors and Contributors
Chairman and CEO, Enamics, Inc.
Founder and Chair, BTM Institute
Faisal Hoque created the concept of Business Technology Management. In 1999, he founded Enamics, Inc., a winner of the 2004 Deloitte Technology Fast 500 and Connecticut Fast 50 awards. He has nearly two decades of experience helping organizations secure value from their technology investments, including American Express, Chase, CompUSA, Dun and Bradstreet, General Electric, Great American Insurance, JP Morgan, MasterCard, Pitney Bowes, Paccar, and PepsiCo. A seasoned entrepreneur and operating executive, he was recruited by GE Capital in 1994 to launch a B2B electronic commerce spin-off. He is the author of The Alignment Effect, which is used in more than a dozen universities. He founded two other award-winning companies prior to Enamics, and over the years, he has personally led more than $200M in private equity and venture capital transactions. In 2003, he founded the BTM Institute, The Michael Nobel Harriet Fulbright Institute of Business Technology Management.
Eli Broad Professor of IT, Michigan State University
Co-Chair, BTM Global Research Council, BTM Institute
V. Sambamurthy is a recognized researcher on business-IT alignment. His expertise is in how firms leverage information technologies in their business strategies, products, services, and organizational processes. His research explores the impact of CIO and top management team characteristics on a firm's success with IT assimilation; the impacts of institutional forces on organizational IT assimilation; and the organization designs and capabilities associated with the strategic use of IT. He sits on the editorial board of a half-dozen leading IS journals, is a frequent speaker and commentator for CIO-related forums, and has received funding from the National Science Foundation, Financial Executives Research Foundation, and the Advanced Practice Council to work with Fortune 500 companies on research intended to provide insight on leveraging IT value. He actively consults with companies on issues related to Business Technology Management.
Michael F. Price Chair in MIS, University of Oklahoma
Co-Chair, BTM Global Research Council, BTM Institute
Robert Zmud has written eight books and more than 70 articles in scholarly journals on topics pertaining to IT, has served as editor-in-chief of MIS Quarterly, and has been elected a fellow of both the Decision Science Institute and the Association for Information Systems. He served for 12 years (1992–2004) as the research director for the Advanced Practices Council of the Society for Information Management, International. He teaches in the areas of information systems, information systems management, and technology management, with research interests focusing on the impact of information technology in facilitating a variety of organizational behaviors and on organizational efforts involved with planning, managing, and diffusing information technology.
Senior Vice President and Global CIO, PepsiCo, Inc.
Co-Chair, BTM Global Leadership Council, BTM Institute
In his 36-year career, Tom Trainer has helped companies such as Citigroup, Eli Lilly and Company, Reebok International, and Joseph E. Seagram and Sons rise to the forefront of their industries. At PepsiCo since 2003, he is transforming IT into a world-class organization while enabling a business transformation/process harmonization initiative globally. He has been Information Week's "CIO of the Year" and was termed the "Quintessential CIO" by CIO magazine. He lectures internationally on business and technology issues.
Executive Vice President and CIO, Marriott International, Inc.
Co-Chair, BTM Global Leadership Council, BTM Institute
Carl Wilson has global accountability for all business information technology resources at Marriott. He joined Marriott from Georgia-Pacific Corporation in 1997, where he had served as their CIO and vice president of information resources. During his career, Mr. Wilson has been the senior vice president of management information services for the Food and International Retailing Sectors of Grand Metropolitan Plc. and vice president of information management for The Pillsbury Company, Inc. He serves on various boards, including the AT&T Executive Customer Advisory Council; American University, Kogod School of Business' IT Executive Board; and the Board of Directors of both Global eXchange Services, Inc., and Software Architects, Inc. He was named to CIO magazine's "CIO 100" list.Contributing Authors
Professor and Robert H. Smith Dean's Chair of Information Systems
University of Maryland
Ritu Agarwal is also director of the Center for Health Information and Decision Systems at the Robert H. Smith School of Business. Her widely published research is currently focused on how organizations derive value from IT through adoption, diffusion, and creative use and the transformation of the health-care industry through IT. She has worked extensively with Fortune 500 companies on research, consulting, and speaking engagements; is active in executive education in the Smith School's Executive MBA Program; serves several editorial appointments; and is a member of AIS, INFORMS, and the Academy of Management, as well as a vice president on the INFORMS Board.
Associate Professor of Decision and Information Analysis, Emory University
Anandhi Bharadwaj is a visiting associate professor of information systems in the School of Information Systems at Singapore Management University. Her research focuses on the organizational impacts of information technology, IT, and business agility, business value of IT, IT and business process outsourcing, and knowledge management. Her work has been widely presented in academic conferences and practitioner forums and has been sponsored by the Society for Information Management. She currently serves as associate editor of information systems research and is on the editorial board of The Journal of the Association for Information Systems (JAIS). She has served as the associate editor of MIS Quarterly. Prior to her doctoral studies, she worked as a consultant and trainer at a worldwide IT consulting firm.
Chief Product Officer, Enamics, Inc.
Executive Director, BTM Global Research Council, BTM Institute
Michael Fillios is responsible for research, development, marketing, and commercialization of Enamics knowledge and software products. He has more than 15 years of experience in corporate and product strategy, research, management consulting, business development, and finance and has co-authored several management papers on BTM. He is the executive director of the BTM Institute's Global Research Council. He came to Enamics from Grant Thornton, where he managed strategic partnerships and business development for the Northeast Enterprise Solutions Group. Previously, he was director of finance for Penwest Pharmaceuticals where he managed financial and information technology functions. He began his career as a senior auditor for Ernst & Young where he performed financial and systems audits for companies across the manufacturing, service, and financial industries.
William S. Lee Distinguished Professor of Information Systems Department of Management, Clemson University
Varun Grover's research interests are in a variety of topics pertaining to business value creation through IT, including strategic information management, IT governance, knowledge management, and e-business, and he is currently co-editing his third book on business process transformation. He has authored more than 130 articles and has been frequently ranked among the top five researchers based on publications in top IS journals over the past decade. He is a senior editor or the associate editor of a number of prestigious IS journals and has received recognitions for his research from the Decision Sciences Institute, PriceWaterhouse Coopers, AIS, and Anbar Intelligence. His primary teaching interests are in the management of IS at the MBA level and IS research at the doctoral level.
Associate Professor of Information Systems, Moore School of Business University of South Carolina
William Kettinger focuses on strategic information management, process management, and IS service quality. He also regularly teaches in MBA programs in Switzerland, Austria, and Mexico. He is a highly sought conference speaker and leads executive development programs both domestically and abroad. He is the co-author of four books, including the highly acclaimed Making the Invisible Visible: How Companies Win with the Right Information, People and IT. He routinely publishes his research in the top IS journals and is the recipient of numerous awards and grants.
Editor in Chief, Enamics, Inc.
Terry Kirkpatrick has been a contributing editor of Booz Allen Hamilton's strategy+business and contributing and deputy editor of CIO Insight magazine. He has also written and edited for McKinsey & Co. and Gartner, Inc. He was editorial director at the Peppers and Rogers Group, where he launched 1to1 Quarterly, a thought leadership journal. At IBM, he launched the award-winning Think Leadership Web site for CEOs, as well as an internal site for the company's scientists and technologists. He had been a managing editor at The Reader's Digest and a business writer for The Associated Press.
Associate Prof...Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:
By Faisal Hoque
Chairman and CEO Enamics, Inc.
Founder and Chair BTM Institute
Our Journey So Far
As meetings go, it was inconspicuous: A dozen university professors and business executives had gathered in a hotel conference room in Washington, D.C., in December 2004, to discuss their field, managing business and technology together. What was set in motion that day, however, will have far-reaching significance.
It was a year after the founding of the BTM Institute, and these members were meeting to set a three-year research agenda for the emerging management science of Business Technology Management (BTM). The institute had published several management papers on various particulars of BTM, but now those in attendance decided to publish a book. It would be the next step in gathering what we know about managing business technology and pointing to areas for future research.
Although based on research, the book also had to be practical. And so it was agreed that it would contain explicit advice for practitioners on the job and perspectives from executives around the world.
The result is Winning The 3-Legged Race.
In the perennial picnic game, teams of two tie the left leg of one partner to the right leg of the other. They must quickly learn to coordinate their movements so that the tied legs stride forward in unison, then the untied legs, then the tied legs. The thesis of this book is that business executives and technology executives must similarly learn to run together. Otherwise, they are likely to lose the race to their competitors.
As a starting point for planning this book, the Institute's Global Research Council used the Business Technology Management Framework created by Enamics, Inc., a company I launched in 1999. The Enamics BTM FrameworkTM is a comprehensive, holistic approach to managing business and technology. We present it in detail in Chapter 1, "What Is BTM?"
The book is organized into two main sections. Part I, "Preparing to Run," addresses BTM at the most strategic levels, where the board, the CEO, and the entire leadership team must be intensely involved if a company expects to be successful. Part II, "Leading the Pack," delves deeper into specific issues of actually getting business and technology to run together according to strategy.
To the chapters we have added the perspectives of executives and academics around the world. We interviewed them in Paris, Amsterdam, New York, and other cities. Their contributions are labeled "Leadership Insights" and "Research Insights."
The names of these thought leaders are on the back cover. If you were to add up the years these accomplished people have devoted to studying, teaching, and practicing the management of technology, it would be many, many times greater than the 50 or so years we've had information technology.
Each chapter begins with a summary that places the subject in context. An "In Brief" section summarizes the chapter at a high level. Each chapter concludes with an "Executive Agenda," where the chapter's subject is translated into specific action steps. You can use these chapter elements, along with the subheads and callouts, to get a quick overview of the subject matter.
In the introduction and conclusion, two prominent CIOs reflect on the need for a standard for business technology management, much as other fields such as finance have standards of practice. This is the goal toward which the BTM Institute is working. Surely at this stage in the field's evolution, we can agree on what works and what does not. The power of this technology is so great, the change it is forcing, not only in business but in every other human endeavor as well, is so sweeping, that now is the time to settle on how best to use it.
The first of many steps leading to this book came in the summer of 1999, when I was working on my first book, e-Enterprise: Business Models, Architecture, and Components. A fundamental argument in it was that technology is meaningless if you do not know how to manage it. This realization came from working for large corporations, as well as from being an entrepreneur and having these corporations as customers. This was a genuine and unmet need, one I wanted to address. I couldn't imagine then how far that desire would lead.
What I had witnessed in company after company was how haphazardly people managed technology, particularly technology spending. The business principles they applied in other areas were not being applied to technology. They would not think of building a new plant without understanding exactly how it would benefit the business. But technology? In many firms, it was bought and deployed on a hope and a prayer. This was the era of dot.com exuberance, of course, and there was a madness loose in the land, but I had seen this problem in earlier, quieter years.
People were looking at pieces of a solution—the concept of portfolio management was getting attention, for example, as were various methods for measuring the ROI in information technology. But no one was looking at the problem holistically. The term alignment was growing in prominence, but not many firms knew how to get there. One or two management enthusiasms of the month would not be the answer.
I became convinced that business executives and technology executives still viewed each other across a chasm, even if they were now sitting at the same table. Only when they took off their business or technology hats and worked together to build the business could they succeed.
How would they do that? They needed a set of ideas, a framework of concrete practices and procedures that would turn the amorphous concept of alignment into reality. I started Enamics, and we began to research and develop this framework. We called it the Business Technology Management Framework. After several years, we took on a limited number of customers to test it in practice—if it had no commercial value, it would be nothing more than a nice theory. As it turned out, the framework was greeted with enthusiasm by executives wrestling with real-world problems.
The framework was a fundamentally different proposition for them. Every management team has pretty much been creating its own approach and practices. Sometimes they worked, and sometimes they did not. Now, with the BTM Framework, the management of technology had a chance to become a science that would replace trial and error. BTM aims to unify decision making from the boardroom to the IT project team. BTM provides a structured approach to such decisions that lets enterprises align, synchronize, and even converge business technology and business management, thus ensuring better execution, risk control, and profitability.
Three years after the formation of Enamics, we published a book on BTM, The Alignment Effect. This began to attract attention among university professors who were teaching the management of technology. Today, more than a dozen universities use the book in their courses.
Enthusiasm among professors and industry practitioners was strong enough that, in 2003, we created the BTM Institute, a nonprofit organization that could pull together the work of many academics, provide feedback from executive practitioners, and develop a research agenda to create a standard for BTM—much like Carnegie Mellon's Capability Maturity Model, which is a standard for process improvement. This book is the institute's first major publication.
The institute has become a global community, with members in Asia, Africa, Europe, and the United States. Technology has so infiltrated our world, changing societies and economies, that the need for managing it intelligently has become a global concern.
I returned to Washington recently to meet with Harriet Mayor Fulbright, chairperson of The Fulbright Center, which has a rich legacy of international educational exchanges and a worldwide community of scholars and alumni. She has joined us in promoting the education of a new generation of leaders in Business Technology Management.
A few weeks before, I had spent time in Sweden with Dr. Michael Nobel, chairman of the Nobel Family Society. The family has long been associated with innovations that not only have commercial value but also promote human welfare. He has joined us, too, seeing in BTM a transforming potential rivaling any other field of science.
The interest of these two distinguished people was unimaginable when we started, and it is unprecedented. What they could see, I'll confess I didn't when I started this quest: Technology informs and influences and improves every aspect of our lives.
Our hope is that this is the beginning of a revolution in the management of business and technology together across the globe, and that what we are learning will not only benefit us all today but influence leaders of the future, as well.
We have created wonderful technology. Now we must understand how to use it.
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