The Cabling Handbook

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9780130805317: The Cabling Handbook

This book is basically everything you need to know about cabling. The installation section is written so that it can be pulled out to be sold on its it we wish. The idea for the book comes from the extensive offerings in the continuing education and distance learning markets and the content follows the courses that currently exist. This book is basically everything you need to know about cabling. The installation section is written so that it can be pulled out to be sold on its it we wish. The idea for the book comes from the extensive offerings in the continuing education and distance learning markets and the content follows the courses that currently exist. This book is basically everything you need to know about cabling. The installation section is written so that it can be pulled out to be sold on its it we wish. The idea for the book comes from the extensive offerings in the continuing education and distance learning markets and the content follows the courses that currently exist.

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From the Publisher:

This is the first edition of The Cabling Handbook, published in 1998. The second edition published in December 2000 as is ISBN 0130883174.

From the Inside Flap:

Introduction
The Cabling industry is becoming a full-service provider as it evolves its infrastructure into an all-digital superhighway. Both the telephone and computer industries are suggesting that their networking models— traditional point-to-point and extended distributed local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN) technology— become part of the cable industry solution. Cable is creating the multimedia networking model solution for the next millennium as a full-service provider through its migration to higher bandwidths.
Migrating to High-Bandwidth Cabling Solutions
Network cabling may not always be the first thing mentioned in the marketing literature for high-speed LAN technologies, but it certainly is the first thing considered by experts contemplating a migration to high-bandwidth solutions. That's why, according to recent cable industry research studies and cabling professionals, many large companies are turning to wiring such as Category 5 copper cable and multimode fiber. Furthermore, such cabling is becoming more prevalent for desktop connections. The push to upgrade both backbone and desktop wiring is indicative of the fear IT managers have that older cabling will not be able to handle next-generation technologies such as ATM and fast Ethernet. This migration is calling into question the value of 25Mbps ATM and fast-Ethernet technology designed to run over Category 3 cable.
Category 5 is now the most dominant form of cabling for large installations, and multimode fiber is the most popular medium for vertical connections between floors and buildings in those organizations. Experts in the cabling industry say that massive Category 5 upgrades are indeed under way to prepare for future technologies. Most cabling experts agree that when faced with a choice between Category 3 and Category 5 copper, most people find Category 5 worth the extra cost, mostly because the cost of the cable itself is trivial in comparison with installation costs, so one might as well go to Cat 5. Cable industry experts have also found that many of the companies that are planning cable changes are also putting fiber in at the desktop level. A lot of people are installing Category 5 and fiber to prepare for the future.
The primary application driving the desire for greater bandwidth, cable industry analysts found, was desktop videoconferencing. Sixty-five percent of the large organizations surveyed said they planned to implement desktop videoconferencing. In the long run, videoconferencing is much cheaper than travel. Nevertheless, although big companies are bulking up on Category 5, technology vendors continue to tout the potential to run high-bandwidth applications over Category 5's older sibling, Category 3. Naturally, that's because of the huge installed base of Category 3.
Members of the ATM25 Alliance claim that 25 Mbps ATM can run over Category 3 cabling, but implementations of such technology are hard to find. Concerns such as these are driving IT managers to update their cable plants. But as long as copper remains the predominant cable source, testing problems will continue to occur. Because of the difficulty in testing Category 5 (caused mostly by the connections between cable segments), networks will still experience cable-related problems— although technology is minimizing cable-related problems. In other words, testing Category 5 is a real problem and there is virtually no way to certify a cable installation. Eventually we're all going to go to fiber optic or optical systems anyway. So, can widening the fiber highway or optical systems through wave division multiplexing deliver the bandwidth promise?
Widening the Optical Systems Highway
Recent advances in wave division multiplexing (WDM) technology have offered the potential for the deployment of cost-effective, highly reliable, high-capacity fiber optic network solutions. This is particularly important since the sustained growth of increasingly bandwidth-hungry applications requires an unprecedented rate of fiber optic network expansion, and places increasing demands on network design and planning. Development of time division multiplexing (TDM) transport systems has reached a plateau and operators can no longer wait for technology, such as managed Synchronous Transfer Mode-64 (STM-64) transmission, to mature. As a result, operators are increasingly pursuing WDM solutions to address evolving capacity issues. Cost-benefit analysis however, reveals that the deployment of currently available small-scale (four wavelength) stand-alone systems only makes sense in long-distance carrier networks— of the kind found in North America, for example. For European intra-operator networks, efficiencies only begin to be realized with 16 wavelength systems.
As a longer-term strategy, the creation of a high-capacity managed WDM network layer using optical add-drop multiplexers or wavelength routers is gaining acceptance in the formulation of future network architectures. The biggest challenge in implementing an all-optical fiber network will be in the delivery of an optical layer network management platform and the successful integration with existing synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) network management systems. Most modern fiber optic networks today use time division multiplexing techniques to send data down the physical layer. But, experts say, most TDM equipment utilizes only about two percent of the intrinsic capacity of fiber. Dense wavelength division multiplexing is a technology that allows multiple data streams to be simultaneously transmitted over a single fiber at data rates as high as the fiber plant will allow— typically 3.5 Gbps. The WDM approach multiplies the simple 3.5 Gbps system by up to 16 times. So a 16-channel system (with ITU-recommended channel-spacing) will support 50 Gbps in each direction over a fiber pair. Also under development are 50-channel systems that will support 200 Gbps— the equivalent of over 20 STM-64 transmitters. Current WDM technology utilizes a composite optical signal carrying four, eight, or 16 data streams, each transmitted on a distinct optical wavelength. Although WDM has been a known technology for years, its early application was restricted to providing two widely separated wavelengths. Only recently has the technology evolved to the point where parallel wavelengths can be densely packed and integrated into a transmission system with multiple, simultaneous, extremely high frequency signals in the 192 to 200 Terahertz (Thz) range. The 16-channel system in essence provides a virtual 16-fiber cable, with each frequency channel serving as a unique STM-16 carrier. The most common form of WDM uses a fiber pair— one for transmission and one for reception. The availability of precise demultiplexers and erbium-doped fiber amplifiers has allowed WDM with eight and 16 channel counts to be commercially delivered. Incoming optic streams are split into individual wavelengths using a newly developed technique of embedding a component (known as a fiber Bragg grating) so that the refractive index of the core is permanently modified to allow only a specific wavelength to pass through. A series of such gratings are used to split the carrier into a required composite wave. The fiber gating creates a highly selective, narrow bandwidth filter that functions somewhat like a mirror and provides significantly greater wavelength selectivity than any other optical technology.
So, would wireless technology be any better?
Wireless WANs and LANs
As school districts struggle with how to interconnect local area networks that they have in operation at various campuses to form a wide area network, one viable solution that is not well known is the use of wireless technology. Wireless network bridges to transmit data within or between buildings, using spread spectrum radio waves or infrared technologies or microwaves, can be used to connect LANs that are separated by as much as 30 miles. Many of the less powerful bridges, however, may be limited to a range of three to six miles. These wireless links can provide data transfer rates from less than 1 Mbps to more than 10 Mbps. As one might expect, the greater the link distance capability, and the higher the data transfer rate, the more expensive the equipment. For example, a pair of bridges operating at a radio frequency of 900 MHz may cost over $7000, provide a link distance of two to three miles, and transfer data at 1 Mbps. A 2.4 Ghz bridge might cost over $6000, provide a reliable link over a distance of four to seven miles, and transfer data at 2 Mbps. On the other hand, a microwave link at 31 Ghz may provide a connection over eight to 11 miles at 10 Mbps (full duplex) for an equipment cost of less than $40,000.
One really attractive feature of wireless connections, and their major advantage, is that there is a one-time cost for the equipment and installation. There are no recurring, on-going monthly costs! Thus, when compared to connection options that have continuing monthly fees associated, the wireless solution quickly pays for itself.
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