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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1906 Excerpt: ... (1, Fig 2. The parts gpen, f pen, Fig 1, are the Abutments of the arch; en, on, the facet; gp, gp, the backs; and p n, p n, the bases of the abuts. The bases are usually widened by feet, »tep», or of nets, d d, for distributing the wt of the bridge orer a greater area of foundation; thus diminishing the danger of set' tlement. The distance ( a in any arch-stone, is called its rf" The only arches in common use for bridges, are the circular, (often called segmental); and the elliptic. Art. 2. To find the depth of keystone for first class cnt-stone arches, whether circular or elliptic Find the rad c o, Fig 1, which will touch the arch at o, a, and e. Add together this rad, and half the span o e. Take the sq rt of the sum. Div this eq rt by 4. To the quot add fij of a ft. Or by formula, Inasmuch as the rules which we give for arches and abuts are entirely original and novel. It may tot to amiss lo state that they are not altogether empirical; bat are based upon accurate drawings Depth of key _ V'Rad + half span, ft9-, in /wt _ 4 + vu Joot" For second-class work, this depth may be increased about %th part; or for brick or fair rabble, about %rd. See table of Keystones. In large arcbes it is advisable to increase the depth of the archstones toward the springs; but when the span is as small as about 60 to 80 or 100 feet, this is not at all necessary if the stone is good; although the arch will be stronger if it is done. In practice this increase, even in the largest spans, does not exceed from to 3 the depth af the key; although theory would require much more in arches of great rise. Rem. To find the rad e o whether the arch be circular or elliptic. Square half the span e o. Square the whole rise i a. Add these squares together; div th« s...
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