Portrait, by Ernst Hader, pinxit, photographed by Sophus Williams.

STOLBERG-STOLBERG, Friedrich Leopold Graf zu.

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Berlin, Phot.u. Verlag Sophus Williams, 1878. Original photograph, carte de visite, albumen print, 10,7 x 6,8 cm, with his in reproduction printed signature. Friedrich Leopold Graf zu Stolberg-Stolberg (7 November 1750 - 5 December 1819), was a German poet born at Bramstedt in Holstein (then a part of Denmark). - Friedrich Leopold belonged to a cadet branch of the Stolberg family. He was born the son of a Danish magistrate and owner of a manorial estate, Count Christian zu Stolberg. Together with his brother Christian, Friedrich Leopold went to the University of Halle in 1770, in order to study German Law. His other studies embraced the Classics and various historical courses. The two brothers then studied in Göttingen and were a prominent members of the famous Hain or Dichterbund, a society of young men who had high aspirations for the unity of the country, and who cultivated German poetry. After leaving the university the brothers made a journey to Switzerland in company with the famed poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. - In 1777 Friedrich Leopold was appointed envoy of the prince bishop of Lübeck at the Court of Copenhagen, but often stayed at Eutin to spend time with his college friend and member of the Dichterbund, Johann Heinrich Voss. - In 1782 Stolberg married Agnes von Witzleben, whom he celebrated in his poems. After six years of happy married life, leaving two sons and two daughters, Agnes died an early death in 1788. Friedrich Leopold then became Danish envoy to the Court of Prussia, and contracted a second marriage with the Countess Sophie von Redern in 1789. After their wedding he and his wife took a grand tour through Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. - This tour was of great importance for his religious development, as he then made the acquaintance of the devout Catholic Freiherr von Droste-Vischering, as well as of Droste-Vischering's resident tutor, the distinguished theologian Katerkamp. In 1791 he was appointed president of the Lübeck episcopal court at Eutin; he resigned this office in 1800, retiring to Münster in Westphalia. By his second marriage Stolberg had a large family, of which all, with the exception of the oldest daughter, followed their father's example and joined the Catholic Church in 1801. The oldest daughter, Agnes, was betrothed to the Lutheran Count Ferdinand of Stolberg-Wernigerode, but her son in 1854 became a Catholic. Four sons and two sons-in-law took part in the campaign against France in 1814; one of these sons was killed at the Battle of Ligny (1815). - For his conversion to Catholicism, Friedrich Leopold was severely attacked by his former friend Voss (Wie ward Fritz Stolberg zum Unfreien?, 1819). After living for a while (from 1812) in the neighbourhood of Bielefeld, he removed to his estate of Sondermühlen near Osnabrück, where he remained until his death in 1819. (Wikipedia). KEYWORDS:germany/photo. Bookseller Inventory # 49577

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1.

LISLE, Claude Joseph Rouget de.
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Book Description Berlin, Phot.u. Verlag Sophus Williams, 1877. Original photograph, carte de visite, albumen print, 10,7 x 6,8 cm, with his in reproduction printed signature. Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle (10 May 1760, Montaigu, Jura - 26 June 1836), was a French Army officer of the Revolutionary Wars. He is known for writing the words and music of the Champs de Guerre pour l'Armée du Rhin in 1792, which would later be known as La Marseillaise and become the French national anthem. - Rouget de Lisle was born in Montaigu, Jura. He entered the army as an engineer and attained the rank of captain. The song that has immortalised him, La Marseillaise (based on Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 25), was composed at Strasbourg, where Rouget de Lisle was quartered in April 1792. He wrote the words in a fit of patriotic excitement after a public dinner. The piece was at first called Chant de guerre pour l'armée du Rhin ("War Song for the Army of the Rhine") and only received its name of Marseillaise from its adoption by the Provençal volunteers whom Barbaroux introduced into Paris and who were prominent in the storming of the Tuileries Palace on the 10 August. Rouget de Lisle was a royalist and was cashiered and thrown into prison in 1793, narrowly escaping the guillotine. He was freed during the Thermidorian Reaction. (Wikipedia). KEYWORDS:france/photo. Seller Inventory # 49559

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MARMONTEL, Jean-François.
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Book Description Berlin, Phot.u. Verlag Sophus Williams, 1881. Original photograph, carte de visite, albumen print, 10,7 x 6,8 cm, with his in reproduction printed signature. Jean-François Marmontel (July 11, 1723 - December 31, 1799) was a French historian and writer, a member of the Encyclopediste movement. - He was born of poor parents at Bort-les-Orgues, in Corrèze. After studying with the Jesuits at Mauriac, Cantal, he taught in their colleges at Clermont and Toulouse; and in 1745, acting on the advice of Voltaire, he set out for Paris to try for literary success. From 1748 to 1753 he wrote a succession of tragedies (Denys le Tyran (1748); Aristomene (1749); Cleopâtre (1750); Heraclides (1752); Egyptus (1753)), which, though only moderately successful on the stage, secured Marmontel's introduction into literary and fashionable circles. - He wrote a series of articles for the Encyclopédie evincing considerable critical power and insight, which in their collected form, under the title Eléments de Littérature, still rank among the French classics. He also wrote several comic operas, the two best of which probably are Sylvain (1770) and Zémire et Azore (1771). In the Gluck - Piccinni controversy he was an eager partisan of Piccinni with whom he collaborated in Didon (1783) and Penelope (1785). - In 1758 he gained the patronage of Madame de Pompadour, who obtained for him a place as a civil servant, and the management of the official journal Le Mercure, in which he had already begun the famous series of Contes moraux. The merit of these tales lies partly in the delicate finish of the style, but mainly in the graphic and charming pictures of French society under King Louis XV. The author was elected to the Académie française in 1763. In 1767 he published Bélisaire, now remarkable in part because of a chapter on religious toleration which incurred the censure of the Sorbonne and the archbishop of Paris. Marmontel retorted in Les Incas (1777) by tracing the cruelties in Spanish America to the religious fanaticism of the invaders. - He was appointed historiographer of France (1771), secretary to the Academy (1783), and professor of history in the Lycée (1786). As a historiographer, Marmontel wrote a history of the regency (1788). Reduced to poverty by the French Revolution, Marmontel retired during the Reign of Terror to Evreux, and soon afterwards to a cottage at Abloville in the département of Eure. There he wrote Memoires d'un pere (4 vols., 1804), including a picturesque review of his life, a literary history of two important reigns, a great gallery of portraits extending from the venerable Jean Baptiste Massillon, whom more than half a century previously he had seen at Clermont, to Honoré Mirabeau. The book was nominally written for the instruction of his children. It contains an exquisite picture of his own childhood in the Limousin; its value for the literary historian is great. - Marmontel lived for some time under the roof of Mme Geoffrin, and was present at her famous dinners given to artists; he was welcomed into most of the houses where the encyclopaedists met. He thus had at his command the best material for his portraits, and made good use of his opportunities. After a short stay in Paris when elected in 1797 to the Conseil des Anciens, he died at Abloville. See Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi, iv.; Morellet, Eloge (1805). - He was a member of the Masonic lodge Les Neuf Soeurs. John Ruskin named him as one of the three people in history who were the most influential for him. (Wikipedia). KEYWORDS:france/photo. Seller Inventory # 49507

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3.

GERSTÄCKER, Friedrich.
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Book Description Berlin, Phot.u. Verlag Sophus Williams, 1881. Original photograph, carte de visite, albumen print, 10,7 x 6,8 cm, with his in reproduction printed signature. Friedrich Gerstäcker (May 10, 1816, Hamburg - May 31, 1872, Braunschweig) was a German traveler and novelist.He was the son of Friedrich Gerstäcker (1790-1825), a celebrated opera singer. After being apprenticed to a commercial house, he learnt farming in Saxony. In 1837, however, just younger than 21 and having imbibed from Robinson Crusoe a taste for adventure, he went to America and wandered over a large part of the United States, supporting himself by whatever work came to hand. He became fireman on a steamboat, deck hand, farmer, silversmith, and merchant. After wandering through most of the United States, spending some time as a hunter and trapper in the Indian territory, and in 1842 keeping a hotel at Point Coupée, Louisiana, he returned to Germany six adventurous years later in 1843. To his great surprise, he found himself famous as an author. His mother had shown his diary, which he regularly sent home, and which contained descriptions of his adventures in the New World, to the editor of the Rosen, who published them in that periodical. These sketches having found favour with the public, Gerstäcker issued them in 1844 under the title Streif- und Jagdzüge durch die Vereinigten Staaten von Nordamerika. In 1845 his first novel, Die Regulatoren in Arkansas, appeared marking the start of a successful writing career. Henceforth the stream of his productiveness flowed on uninterruptedly. From 1849 to 1852 Gerstäcker travelled round the world, visiting North and South America, Polynesia and Australia. He experienced the California gold rush, crossed the South Pacific on a whaler, and wandered through Australia and experienced a "gold rush" there. On his return to Germany, he settled in Leipzig. In 1860 he again went to South America, chiefly with a view to inspecting the German colonies there and reporting on the possibility of diverting the stream of German emigration in this direction. The result of his observations and experiences he recorded in Achtzehn Monate in Südamerika (1862). In 1862 he accompanied Duke Ernest of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to Egypt and Abyssinia, and on his return settled at Coburg, where he wrote a number of novels descriptive of the scenes he had visited. In 1867-1868 Gerstäcker again undertook a long journey, visiting North America, Venezuela and the West Indies. He visited Mexico right after the collapse of the Second Mexican Empire, a situation about which he wrote a few passages in one of his books. On his return lived first at Dresden and then at Brunswick. Preparing a journey to India, China and Japan, he suffered a fatal cerebral haemorrhage on May 31, 1872. - The widely traveled adventurer left an oeuvre of 44 volumes, which he edited himself for his Jena publisher H. Costenoble. His stories and novels inspired numerous imitators: Karl May profited from him and used landscape descriptions as well as subjects and characters. Even theatre and movie companies borrowed from his work: the plot of the musical Brigadoon (1954) was adapted from Gerstäcker's short story Germelshausen. - The Friedrich-Gerstäcker-Gesellschaft e.V. (Fr. G. society) founded in 1978 in Braunschweig offers more information about Gerstäcker and runs a museum about his work. (Wikipedia). KEYWORDS:germany/photo. Seller Inventory # 49471

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LONGFELLOW, Henry Wadsworth.
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Book Description Berlin, Phot.u. Verlag Sophus Williams, 1894. Original photograph, carte de visite, albumen print, 10,7 x 6,8 cm, with his in reproduction printed signature. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (February 27, 1807 - March 24, 1882) was an American poet and educator whose works include "Paul Revere's Ride", The Song of Hiawatha, and "Evangeline". He was also the first American to translate Dante Alighieri's The Divine Comedy and was one of the five Fireside Poets. - Longfellow was born in Portland, Maine, then part of Massachusetts, and studied at Bowdoin College. After spending time in Europe he became a professor at Bowdoin and, later, at Harvard College. His first major poetry collections were Voices of the Night (1839) and Ballads and Other Poems (1841). Longfellow retired from teaching in 1854 to focus on his writing, living the remainder of his life in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in a former headquarters of George Washington. His first wife, Mary Potter, died in 1835 after a miscarriage. His second wife, Frances Appleton, died in 1861 after sustaining burns from her dress catching fire. After her death, Longfellow had difficulty writing poetry for a time and focused on his translation. He died in 1882. - Longfellow predominantly wrote lyric poems which are known for their musicality and which often presented stories of mythology and legend. He became the most popular American poet of his day and also had success overseas. He has been criticized, however, for imitating European styles and writing specifically for the masses. (Wikipedia). KEYWORDS:united states/photo. Seller Inventory # 49497

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5.

CUVIER, Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric.
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Book Description Berlin, Phot.u. Verlag Sophus Williams, 1881. Original photograph, carte de visite, albumen print, 10,7 x 6,8 cm, with his in reproduction printed signature. Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric Cuvier (August 23, 1769 - May 13, 1832), known as Georges Cuvier, was a French naturalist and zoologist. Cuvier was a major figure in natural sciences research in the early 19th century, and was instrumental in establishing the fields of comparative anatomy and paleontology through his work in comparing living animals with fossils. He is well known for establishing extinction as a fact, being the most influential proponent of catastrophism in geology in the early 19th century, and opposing the evolutionary theories of Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. His most famous work is the Le Règne Animal (1817; English: The Animal Kingdom). In 1819, he was created a peer for the life in honor of his scientific contributions. Thereafter he was known as Baron Cuvier. He died in Paris of cholera. - Cuvier was born in Montbéliard, France (in department of Doubs), where his Protestant ancestors had lived since the time of the Reformation. His father, Jean George Cuvier, was a lieutenant in the Swiss Guards and a bourgeois of the town of Montbéliard; his mother was Anne Clémence Chatel. At the time the town lay in the Duchy of Württemberg, but was annexed to France on 10 October 1793. His mother, who was much younger than his father, tutored him diligently throughout his early years so that he easily excelled the other children at school. During his gynasium years, he had little trouble acquiring Latin and Greek, and was always at the head of his class in mathematics, history, and geography. According to Lee (1833, p. 11), "The history of mankind was, from the earliest period of his life, a subject of the most indefatigable application; and long lists of sovereigns, princes, and the driest chronological facts, once arranged in his memory, were never forgotten." - Soon after entering the gymnasium, at age 10, he encountered a copy of Gesner's Historiae Animalium, the work that first sparked his interest in natural history. He then began frequent visits to the home of a relation where he could borrow volumes of Buffon's massive Histoire Naturelle. All of these he read and re-read, retaining so much of the information that by the age of twelve "he was as familiar with quadrupeds and birds as a first-rate naturalist." He remained at the gymnasium for four years. - Cuvier spent an additional four years at the Caroline Academy in Stuttgart, where he excelled in all of his coursework. Although he knew no German on his arrival, after only nine months study he managed to win the school prize for that language. Upon graduation, he had no money to await appointment to academic office. So in July, 1788 he took a job in Normandy as tutor to the only son of the Comte d'Héricy, a Protestant noble. It was here during the early 1790s that he began his comparisons of fossils with extant forms. Cuvier regularly attended meetings held at the nearby town of Valmont for the discussion of agricultural topics. There, he became acquainted with Henri Alexandre Tessier (1741-1837), a physician and well-known agronomist who had fled the Terror in Paris and assumed a false identity. After hearing Tessier speak on agricultural matters, Cuvier recognized him as the author of certain articles on agriculture in the Encyclopédie Méthodique and addressed him as M. Tessier. Tessier replied in dismay, "I am known, then, and consequently lost." - " Lost!" replied M. Cuvier; "no; you are henceforth the object of our most anxious care." They soon became intimate and Tessier introduced Cuvier to his colleagues in Paris - "I have just found a pearl in the dunghill of Normandy", he wrote his friend Antoine-Augustin Parmentier. As a result Cuvier entered into correspondence with several leading naturalists of the day and was invited to Paris. Arriving in the spring of 1795, at the age of 26, he soon became the assistant of Jean-Claude Mertrud (1728-1802), who had been appointed to the newly created chair of comparative anatomy at the Jardin des Plantes. - The Institut de France was founded in the same year, and he was elected a member of its Academy of Sciences. In 1796 he began to lecture at the École Centrale du Pantheon, and at the opening of the National Institute in April, he read his first palaeontological paper, which was subsequently published in 1800 under the title Mémoires sur les espèces d'éléphants vivants et fossiles. In this paper he analyzed skeletal remains of Indian and African elephants as well as mammoth fossils, and a fossil skeleton known at that time as the 'Ohio animal'. Cuvier's analysis established, for the first time, the fact that African and Indian elephants were different species and that mammoths were not the same species as either African or Indian elephants and therefore must be extinct. He further stated that the 'Ohio animal' represented another extinct species that was even more different from living elephants than mammoths were. Years later, in 1806, he would return to the 'Ohio animal' in another paper and give it the name mastodon. - In his second paper in the year 1796, he would describe and analyse a large skeleton found in Paraguay, which he would name megatherium. He concluded that this skeleton represented yet another extinct animal and, by comparing its skull with living species of tree dwelling sloths, that it was a kind of ground dwelling giant sloth. Together these two 1796 papers were a landmark event in the history of paleontology and in the development of comparative anatomy as well. They also greatly enhanced Cuvier's personal reputation, and they essentially ended what had been a long running debate about the reality of extinction. - In 1799 he succeeded Daubenton as professor of natural history in the Collège de France. In 1802 he became titular professor at the Jardin des Plantes; and in the same year he w. Seller Inventory # 49609

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6.

KOTZEBUE, August Friedrich Ferdinand von.
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Book Description Berlin, Phot.u. Verlag Sophus Williams, 1879. Original photograph, carte de visite, albumen print, 10,7 x 6,8 cm, with his in reproduction printed signature. August Friedrich Ferdinand von Kotzebue (3 May 1761 - 23 March 1819) was a German dramatist. - One of Kotzebue's books was burned during the Wartburg festival in 1817. He was murdered in 1819 by Karl Ludwig Sand, a militant member of the Burschenschaften. The murder of Kotzebue gave Metternich the pretext to issue the Carlsbad Decrees of 1819, which dissolved the Burschenschaften, cracked down against the liberal press, and seriously restricted academic freedom in the states of the German Confederation. - Kotzebue was born in Weimar. After attending school there, he went in his sixteenth year to the University of Jena, and afterwards studied for a year in Duisburg. In 1780 he completed his legal course and became an advocate. - Through the influence of Graf Gortz, Prussian ambassador at the Russian court, he became secretary of the governor-general of St Petersburg. - In 1783 he received the appointment of assessor to the high court of appeal in Reval, where he married the daughter of a Russian lieutenant-general. He was ennobled in 1785, and became president of the magistracy of the province of Estonia. - In Reval he acquired considerable reputation by his novels, Die Leiden der Ortenbergischen Familie ("The Sorrows of the Ortenberger Family") (1785) and Geschichte meines Vaters (History of my Father) (1788), and still more by the plays Adelheid von Wulfingen ("Adelheid of Wulfingen") (1789), Menschenhass und Reue (Misanthropy and Regrets) (1790) and Die Indianer in England ("The Indians in England" (1790). - The good impression produced by these works was, however, almost effaced by a controversial dramatic satire, Doktor Bahrdt mit der eisernen Stirn ("Doctor Bahrdt with the Iron Brow"), which appeared in 1790 with the name of Knigge on the title page. - Written in response to a polemical feud between J.G. Zimmermann and leaders of Berlin's party of the Enlightenment, it linked each of Zimmermann's opponents to a particular sexual perversion. Kotzebue denied authorship even when the matter began to be investigated by the police, so that as well as alienating both Zimmermann and Knigge (his former allies), Kotzebue gained a reputation for dishonesty and lasciviousness that he would never shake off. - After the death of his first wife, Kotzebue retired from the Russian service, and lived for a time in Paris and Mainz; he then settled in 1795 on an estate which he had acquired near Reval and devoted himself to writing. - Within a few years, Kotzebue published six volumes of miscellaneous sketches and stories (Die jüngsten Kinder meiner Laune, 1793-1796) and more than twenty plays, the majority of which were translated into several European languages. - In 1798 he accepted the office of dramatist to the court theatre in Vienna, but owing to differences with the actors he was soon obliged to resign. - He then returned to his native town, but as he was not on good terms with the powerful Goethe, and had openly attacked the romantic style for which Goethe was known, his position in Weimar was not comfortable. - He thought of returning to St Petersburg, but on his journey there he was, for some unknown reason, arrested at the frontier and transported to Siberia. Fortunately he had written a comedy which flattered the vanity of Emperor Paul I of Russia; he was quickly brought back, presented with an estate from the crown lands of Livonia, and made director of the German theatre in St Petersburg. - Kotzebue returned to Germany when Tsar Paul died, and again settled in Weimar; he then turned to Berlin, where, in association with Garlieb Merkel (1769-1850), he edited Der Freimutige (Free Courage) from 1803 to 1807 and began his Almanach dramatischer Spiele ("Almanac of the Dramatic Arts") in 1803, which was published posthumously in 1820. - Towards the end of 1806, he was once more in Russia, and in the security of his estate in Estonia wrote many satirical articles against Napoleon Bonaparte in his journals Die Biene ("The Bee" or "The Cootie") and Die Grille ("The Cricket"). - As councillor of state, he was attached in 1816 to the department for foreign affairs in St Petersburg, and in 1817 went to Germany, from where he reported to Russia on German affairs. - Some suspected him of being a spy, and this view was long maintained, but in modern times that has been shown to have been unfounded: he reported only on matters that were already in the public domain. Nevertheless it is fair to say he was Russia's advocate in Germany. (Wikipedia). KEYWORDS:germany/photo. Seller Inventory # 49614

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7.

FREILIGRATH, Ferdinand.
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Book Description Berlin, Phot.u. Verlag Sophus Williams, 1898. Original photograph, carte de visite, albumen print, 10,7 x 6,8 cm, with his in reproduction printed signature. Ferdinand Freiligrath (17 June 1810 - 18 March 1876) was a German writer. - He was born in Detmold, Principality of Lippe. He had to leave secondary school at an early age and was trained as a salesman. He worked in Amsterdam from 1823-1836. In 1837 he started working as a bookkeeper in Barmen. Already while working in Amsterdam he started translating from French. Later on, he started writing poems for the Musenalmanach (edited by Adelbert von Chamisso and Gustav Schwab) and the Morgenblatt (ed. Cotta). - His first collection of poems was published in 1838 ("Gedichte"). In 1839 he became a professional writer. His early poems were inspired by Victor Hugo's Orientales, which he also partly translated into German; they often dealt with exotic subjects. The poem "Der Mohrenfürst" for example tells the story of a black prince who was a fierce warrior. He is defeated in battle, sold as a slave and ends up as a drummer in a circus, only the lion's skin he wore that now decorates the drum still reminding him of his previous life. This poem was set as a song by Carl Loewe. Freiligrath was a friend of the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. In 1842, when Longfellow was taking a rigorous water cure at Boppard on the Rhine, a fellow patient introduced him to Freiligrath at the latter's home in St. Goar. Freiligrath had a special interest in English and American poetry. There followed many meetings and outings in Germany where this topic was discussed, and Longfellow presented Freiligrath with copies of his books Hyperion and Ballads and Other Poems. The friendship developed further in their correspondence. Due to political repression (censorship), and the encouragement of fellow poet Hoffmann von Fallersleben, Freiligrath later became more political. "Ein Glaubensbekenntnis" was published in 1844 and was a huge success. He had to leave Germany and was contacted by Karl Marx in Belgium. In 1844 Freiligrath came to Switzerland, in 1845 "ça ira!" was published. After some time in London Freiligrath came back to Germany and worked for the "Neue Rheinische Zeitung" (general editor: Karl Marx, editor of cultural pages: Georg Weerth). In 1847, Franz Liszt set Freiligrath's poem "O lieb, so lang du lieben kannst" to music- the song was later arranged by Liszt for solo piano as his "Liebestraume No. 3," which subsequently became one of his most famous piano pieces. In 1851 he had to leave Germany again and he became the director of the London branch of the Schweizer Generalbank. Back in Germany after the amnesty of 1868, Freiligrath finally became a nationalist, even publishing a patriotic poem "Hurra, Germania!", inspired by Germany's annexation of Alsace-Lorraine. He also indicated that German National Flags colors (which at the time stood only for the nation, not any political entity), the black was for gunpowder, the red for blood and the yellow the glow given off by the fire. He died in 1876. Among the first writers to translate Freiligarth into English was the Irish poet James Clarence Mangan. (Wikipedia). KEYWORDS:germany/photo/netherlands. Seller Inventory # 49494

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8.

HALÉVY, Jacques-François-Fromental-Élie.
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Book Description Berlin, Phot.u. Verlag Sophus Williams, 1882. Original photograph, carte de visite, albumen print, 10,7 x 6,8 cm, with his in reproduction printed signature. Jacques-François-Fromental-Élie Halévy (27 May 1799 - 17 March 1862) (usually known as Fromental Halévy) was a French composer. He is known today largely for his opera La Juive. Halévy was born in Paris, the son of a cantor, Elie Halfon Halévy, who was the secretary of the Jewish community of Paris, a writer and a teacher of Hebrew, and a French Jewish mother. The name Fromental, by which he was generally known, reflects that he was born on the feast-day of that name in the French Revolutionary calendar which was still operative at that time. He entered the Paris Conservatoire at the age of nine or ten (accounts differ), in 1809, becoming a pupil and later protegé of Cherubini. After two second-place attempts, he won the Prix de Rome in 1819: his cantata subject was Herminie. As he had to delay his departure to Rome because of the death of his mother, he was able to accept the first commission that brought him to public attention - a Marche Funèbre et De Profundis en Hébreu for three part choir, tenor and orchestra, which was commissioned by the Consistoire Israélite du Département de la Seine, for a public service in memory of the assassinated duc de Berry, performed on 24 March 1820. Later, his brother Léon recalled that the De Profundis, "infused with religious fervor, created a sensation, and attracted interest to the young laureate of the institute." Halévy was chorus master at the Théâtre Italien, while he struggled to get an opera performed. Despite the mediocre reception of L'artisan, at the Opéra-Comique in 1827, Halévy moved on to be chorus master at the Opéra. The same year he became professor of harmony and accompaniment at the Conservatoire, where he was professor of counterpoint and fugue in 1833 and of composition in 1840. He was elected to the Institut de France in 1836. - With his opera La Juive, in 1835, Halévy attained not only his first major triumph, but gave the world a work that was to be one of the cornerstones of the French repertory for a century, with the role of Eléazar one of the great favorites of tenors such as Enrico Caruso. The opera's most famous aria is Eléazar's "Rachel, quand du Seigneur". Its orchestral ritornello is the one quotation from Halévy that Berlioz included in his Treatise on Instrumentation, for its unusual duet for two cor anglais. It is probable however that this aria was inserted only at the request of the great tenor Adolphe Nourrit, who premiered the role and may have suggested the aria's text. La Juive is one of the grandest of grand operas, with major choruses, a spectacular procession in Act I, and impressive celebrations in Act III. It culminates with the heroine plunging into a vat of boiling water in Act V. Mahler admired it greatly, stating: "I am absolutely overwhelmed by this wonderful, majestic work. I regard it as one of the greatest operas ever created". Other admirers included Wagner who wrote an enthusiastic review of its premiere for the German press. (Wagner never showed towards Halévy the anti-Jewish animus that was so notorious a feature of his writings on Meyerbeer and, to a lesser extent, on Mendelssohn). - After La Juive Halévy's real successes were relatively few, although at least three operas, L'éclair, La reine de Chypre and Charles VI should be mentioned. Heine commented that Halévy was an artist, but 'without the slightest spark of genius'. He became however a leading bureaucrat of the arts, becoming Secretary of the Académie des Beaux-Arts and presiding over committees to determine the standard pitch of orchestral A, to award prizes for operettas, and so on. The artist Delacroix offers a chilling portrait of Halévy's decline in his diaries (5 February 1855): I went on to Halévy s house, where the heat from his stove was suffocating. His wretched wife has crammed his house with bric-a-brac and old furniture, and this new craze will end by driving him to a lunatic asylum. He has changed and looks much older, like a man who is being dragged on against his will. How can he possibly do serious work in this confusion? His new position at the Academy must take up a great deal of his time, and make it more and more difficult for him to find the peace and quiet he needs for his work. Left that inferno as quickly as possible. The breath of the streets seemed positively delicious. - Halévy's cantata Prométhée enchaîné was premiered in 1849 at the Paris Conservatoire, and is generally considered the first mainstream western orchestral composition to use quarter tones. Halévy died in retirement at Nice, leaving his last opera, Noé, unfinished. It was completed by his son-in-law, and former student, Georges Bizet, but was not performed until 10 years after Bizet's own death. Halévy taught at the Conservatoire de Paris and privately during his career; his other notable students include Adolphe Blanc, Charles Lebouc, Aimé Maillart, Antoine François Marmontel, Georges Mathias, Jean-Théodore Radoux, and Marie Gabriel Augustin Savard. (Wikipedia). KEYWORDS:france/photo. Seller Inventory # 49458

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9.

AUBER, Daniel François Esprit.sdf
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Book Description Berlin, Phot.u. Verlag Sophus Williams, 1890. Original photograph, carte de visite, albumen print, 10,7 x 6,8 cm, with his in reproduction printed signature. Daniel François Esprit Auber (29 January 1782 - 12/13 May 1871) was a French composer.The son of a Paris print-seller, Auber was born in Caen in Normandy. Though his father expected him to continue in the print-selling business, he also allowed his son to learn how to play several musical instruments. His first teacher was the Tirolean composer, Josef Alois Ladurner (1769 - 1851). At the age of 20 Auber was sent to London for business training, but he was obliged to leave England in 1804 when the Treaty of Amiens was breached in 1804. Auber had already attempted musical composition, and at this period produced several concertos pour basse, modeled after violoncellist Lamarre, in whose name they were published. The praise given to his concerto for the violin, which was played at the Paris Conservatoire by Mazas, encouraged him to undertake a resetting of an old comic opera, Julie (1811). He also began to study with the renowned Luigi Cherubini. - In 1813 the unfavourable reception of his one-act debut opera Le Séjour militaire put an end for some years to his attempts as composer. But his failure in business, and the death of his father in 1819, compelled him once more to turn to music. He produced another opera, Le Testament et les billets-doux (1819), which was no better received than the former. But he persevered, and the next year was rewarded by the complete success of La Bergère châtelaine, an opera in three acts. - This was the first in a long series of brilliant successes. In 1822 began his long association with librettist Eugène Scribe. Their first opera, Leicester, shows evidence of the influence of Gioacchino Rossini in its musical style. Auber soon developed his own voice, however: light, vivacious, graceful, and melodious--characteristically French. Le maçon (1825) was his first major triumph, staying in the repertory until the 20th century, with 525 performances at the Opéra-Comique alone. An ensemble from the latter found its way into Herold's ballet La Somnambule (source of Bellini's La sonnambula) as an air parlante (a way of explicating the plot through the words of a relevant operatic aria or salon piece). Auber achieved another triumph in La muette de Portici, also known as Masaniello after its hero. Produced in Paris in 1828, it rapidly became a European favorite, and the foundation work of a new genre, grand opera, that was consolidated by Rossini's Guillaume Tell the following year. Its characteristic features are a private drama staged in the context of a significant historical event in which the chorus is dramatically engaged as a representative of the people, varied and piquant musical textures, grandiloquent marches, spectacular scenic effects and a statutory ballet. The duet from La Muette, Amour sacré de la patrie (meaning "Sacred Love of the Homeland"), was welcomed as a new Marseillaise; its performance at Brussels on 25 August 1830, in which Adolphe Nourrit sang the leading tenor role, engendered a riot that became the signal for the Belgian Revolution that drove out the Dutch. La Muette broke ground also in its use of a ballerina in a leading role (the eponymous mute), and includes long passages of mime music. - Official and other dignities testified to the public appreciation of Auber's works. In 1829 he was elected a member of the Institute. Fra Diavolo,which premiered on 28 January 1830, was his most successful opera. That same year, 1830, he was named director of the court concerts. Next year, on 20 June, 1831, he had another big success, with Le Philtre,starring the great tenor, Adolphe Nourrit. The libretto was translated into Italian and set by Donizetti as L'elisir d'amore, one of the most successful comic operas of all time. Two years later, on 27 February 1833, Gustave III, his second grand opera, also triumphed and stayed in the repertory for years. The libretto was to be used twice more, first by Saverio Mercadante for Il reggente, with the action transferred to Scotland, and, next by Giuseppe Verdi, as Un ballo in maschera. He enjoyed several more successes, all at the Opéra-Comique. These were Le cheval de bronze (1835), L'Ambassadrice (1836), Le domino noir (1837), Les diamants de la couronne (1841) and La part du diable (1843).In the meantime, in 1842, at the wish of King Louis Philippe, he succeeded Cherubini as director of the Conservatoire. Auber was also a member of the Legion of Honour from 1825, and attained the rank of commander in 1847. That year also saw the premiere of Haydée, another opéra comique, even though it was on a serious subject. The tenor lead in Haydée was sung by the same Gustave Roger who, two years later, created the title role in Meyerbeer's Le Prophète at the Opéra. Napoleon III made Auber his Imperial Maître de Chapelle in 1857. - In his later years, Auber's output slowed down considerably. The 1850s were marked by Manon Lescaut, an opéra comique with a tragic end (1856), and revisions of Le cheval de bronze and Fra Diavolo (both 1857). He had one major success in the 1860s: Le premier jour de bonheur (Opéra comique, 1868). Despite his slowdown in composing, he remained a well-loved figure, known for witty sayings and personal generosity. He survived the German siege of Paris in 1870-71, but died during the upheaval of the Paris Commune on 12 or 13 May 1871. - Today, the Rue Auber leads up to the Paris Opera House and the nearest RER station is called Auber. - See Adolph Kohut: "Auber", vol. xvii. of Musiker Biographien Leipzig, 1895. (Wikipedia). KEYWORDS:france/photo. Seller Inventory # 49501

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10.

RAMEAU, Jean-Philippe.
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Book Description Berlin, Phot.u. Verlag Sophus Williams, 1884. Original photograph, carte de visite, albumen print, 10,7 x 6,8 cm. Jean-Philippe Rameau (September 25, 1683, Dijon - September 12, 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. He replaced Jean-Baptiste Lully as the dominant composer of French opera and is also considered the leading French composer for the harpsichord of his time, alongside François Couperin. Little is known about Rameau's early years, and it was not until the 1720s that he won fame as a major theorist of music with his Treatise on Harmony (1722). He was almost 50 before he embarked on the operatic career on which his reputation chiefly rests. His debut, Hippolyte et Aricie (1733), caused a great stir and was fiercely attacked for its revolutionary use of harmony by the supporters of Lully's style of music. Nevertheless, Rameau's pre-eminence in the field of French opera was soon acknowledged, and he was later attacked as an "establishment" composer by those who favoured Italian opera during the controversy known as the Querelle des Bouffons in the 1750s. Rameau's music had gone out of fashion by the end of the 18th century, and it was not until the 20th that serious efforts were made to revive it. Today, he enjoys renewed appreciation with performances and recordings of his music ever more frequent. (Wikipedia). KEYWORDS:france/photo. Seller Inventory # 49499

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