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Nordic model(Chinese Edition)

DAN ] TUO BEN M

ISBN 10: 7509764203 / ISBN 13: 9787509764206
New Condition: New Soft cover
From liu xing (JiangSu, JS, China)

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Pub Date: 2014-09-01 Pages: 200 Language: Chinese Publisher: Social Sciences Academic Press Nordic model is one of the international community unique social model of historical particularity of its existence. but also has practical reference. The book on the Nordic model in-depth analysis. explaining its characteristics. analyze its performance. and lists the challenges it faces; a lot of public debate on the proposed quick fix for the careful investigation. explains these programs do not mee. Bookseller Inventory # CQ076561

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Title: Nordic model(Chinese Edition)

Binding: paperback

Book Condition: New

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Synopsis:

北欧模式存在吗?北欧国家的主要特点是什么?它们面临着哪些挑战?北欧福利制度在全球化和人口老龄化的情况下是否可行?需要进行哪些改革?近年来,北欧国家吸引了国际社会的广泛关注。芬兰的教学制度多次被评为世界最佳。瑞典养老金改革是国际辩论的参照标准。丹麦"弹性安全"的图标出现在欧盟和经合组织(OECD)政策议程的明显位置。北欧国家的经济表现给人的印象一直比较深刻:快速增长、高就业率、稳定的物价,以及政府财政的健康盈余。北欧国家以开放的姿态迎接全球化和新技术。支持北欧国家在协调经济效率与社会公平方面一直都很成功。虽然有成功的过去,但北欧模式正面临严峻的挑战。全球化和人口转型给劳动力市场和公共部门带来巨大影响。人们提出,北欧福利制度是否像今天一样存在问题。《北欧模式:迎接全球化与共担风险》对北欧模式进行了深入分析,解释其特征、分析其表现,并列出了其面临的挑战。报告集对诸多公共辩论中提出的"快速解决方案"进行了仔细调查,解释了这些方案不切合实际或是基于错误推断的原因。报告集还概述了北欧模式所需的政策改革的主要内容。《北欧模式:迎接全球化与共担风险》:·北欧国家已经采取很多措施以应对养老金的挑战--但还有很多事情要做,特别是芬兰北欧国家已经采取很多措施来应对养老金的挑战。特别是瑞典养老金改革,其引入了一个"概念上定义的缴纳系统",而被广泛认为是参照标准。该国承诺,将保持财政可持续且无须在现有水平的基础上提高养老金的缴费水平。丹麦最近已经采取措施提高早退以及公共养老金的法定年龄。一旦实施,法定年龄将与长寿绑定。这些措施能解决一大部分问题,但未能解决由人口方面的变化带来的可持续问题。芬兰在解决问题上还不够先进;特别是与收入相关的私人部门养老金制度是不可持续的问题,以至于该国可能呼吁在未来几十年大幅提高缴费率。最近几年,芬兰实施了一些影响养老金和退休的改革,虽然这些改革还不足以解决这些问题。最近的养老金改革废除了一些早退计划,提高了人们延长职业生涯(63岁以上)的动力。此外,芬兰还引入了一个调节机制,将养老金与长寿挂钩,即如果寿命增加,则将削减特定年龄群体的养老金。后者①非常重要,这意味着会给寿命延长、退休年龄不变的个人每年剩下更少的福利。换句话说,随着寿命的增加,个人要么接受更低的(物质)生活标准,要么推迟退休。如果个人推迟退休且寿命增加,则其所获得的福利将和原先一样多。这虽然有助于解决老龄化的问题,但仍然不够。此外,从长远看,当寿命增加时,保持法定退休年龄(62、63和68岁)固定不变将是反常的做法。·很多人想早点退休--但应鼓励他们延长工作生涯从社会的角度来说,有一些原因可以解释人们退休得太早。第一,税收(结合各种形式的检查和补充)意味着持续工作,晚些退休对个人的回报要少于对社会的回报,即使保险精算出来的是公道合理的福利。原因是通过延长退休所得的劳动收入是要收税的(闲暇所得除外)。第二,当寿命增加时,即使福利对寿命的指数调整法让个人有了晚些退休的动机,但这个体系仍不能必然确保这种情况的发生。因为适用于各种计划的法定年龄未能指数化,并且个人会低估自己的寿命,所以,最后随着收入的增长,偏好将转向聚焦于人生"第三阶段"的闲暇时光。老龄化经

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