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This historic book may have numerous typos and missing text. Purchasers can download a free scanned copy of the original book (without typos) from the publisher. Not indexed. Not illustrated. 1885 Excerpt: ...My reasons for preferring the latter method is that if the surface should get scratched or damaged, the fracture will not show up white, which it would do if the varnish only were stained. We will now proceed to explain the means adopted for preparing the stains. Such substances as turmeric, saffron, annato, gamboge, &c., give almost every shade of yellow; dragon's blood and sanders wood will yield reds of varying degrees of strength, while the addition of a little logwood will render the red of a darker or brownish tint. It is, however, well to remember that a painted appearance is caused by having the stain too powerful. The preceding colours may be obtained by simmering or parboiling the substances mentioned, and diluting, according to requirements, with water; or a steeped solution can be made up with spirits of wine, by which means an extract is gained that has less tendency to raise the grain than is the case with water stains. Again, a spirit solution can be added to the spirit varnish; but for oil varnishes it will be found the wisest plan to stain the turpentine, and not the oil. Madder of different tones is also used for staining. I prefer using the water stains hot, but warmth is not necessary with those extracted by spirits of wine. TOOLS FOR, AND PROCESS OF, VARNISHING We will now discuss the tools and materials required for spirit varnish polishing, and the manner of using them. For the purpose of polishing varnished surfaces. such powders as Tripoli, rouge, and putty powder are used, while for coarser cutting or levelling, pumice powder is employed, either with water or oil, according to circumstances. In connexion with the above processes strict attention must be paid to insure cleanliness. The brushes best adapted for spirit varnishes a...
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