Lean Sigma: A Practitioner's Guide

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9780132390781: Lean Sigma: A Practitioner's Guide

The Practical, Easy-to-Use Guide to Lean Sigma Problem-Solving

Lean Sigma delivers results—if you use the right tools and techniques. In Lean Sigma: A Practitioner’s Guide, Dr. Ian Wedgwood captures best-practice Lean Sigma experience from multiple projects and industries, helping any professional identify the solution that will work best—and implement it.

 

Wedgwood’s exclusive "project roadmaps" present the fastest, most effective route to solving a wide range of problems—and explain why those solutions make sense. His "discovery roadmaps" help you identify potential Lean Sigma projects, even in processes where there are no obvious targets.

 

The heart of Lean Sigma is Wedgwood's 48 individual "tools roadmaps": step-by-step instructions revealing exactly how and when to use all these Lean Sigma tools...

· 5 Whys

 

· 5S

 

· Affinity

 

· ANOVA

 

· Boxplots

 

· Capability tools

 

· Cause & effect matrices

 

· Chi-Square

 

· Control charts

 

· Critical path analyses

 

· Customer tools

 

· Demand tools

 

· DOE tools

 

· Fishbone diagrams

 

· Handoff maps

 

· KPOVs

 

· Load charts

 

· MSA tools

 

· Multi-Cycle analyses

 

· Multi-Vari studies

 

· Murphy’s analyses

 

· Normality tests

 

· OEE

 

· Pareto charts

 

· Poka Yoke

 

· Process FMEA

 

· Process variables (I/O) maps

 

· Project charter

 

· Pull systems & Kanban

 

· Rapid changeover

 

· Regression

 

· SIPOC

 

· Spaghetti maps

 

· SPC

 

· Swimlane maps

 

· Time tools

 

Whether you’re a Green Belt, Black Belt, Master, Project Champion, Sponsor, Deployment Leader, or consultant, this book will help you use Lean Sigma to solve far more problems, far more rapidly, and far more effectively.

 

Dr. Ian Wedgwood, Executive Director of Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, has more than ten years of experience using, deploying, training, and consulting on Six Sigma and Lean Sigma. He has led and facilitated deployments in industries ranging from electronics and medical devices to chemicals and health care, and has trained and mentored numerous executives, champions, and belts. He holds a Ph.D. and First-Class Honors degree in Applied Mathematics from Scotland’s St. Andrew’s University.

 

Chapter 1    Introduction 1

PART I        PROJECT ROADMAPS TO SOLVE BUSINESS PROBLEMS

Chapter 2    Define—Tools Roadmap Applied to the Beginning of All Projects   13

Chapter 3    Global Process Problems  23

          A: On-Time Delivery Issues        23

          B: Capacity of Process Is Too Low      27

          C: RTY, Defects, Accuracy, Quality, Scrap, and Rework Issues    29

          D: % Uptime Is Too Low 33

          E: Pace of Process Too Slow     36

          F: Process Has Enough Capacity, But Fails Intermittently   38

          G: Process Has Enough Capacity, But Process Lead Time Is Too Long  41

          H: Individual Steps Meet Takt, Global Process Does Not    44

          I: Demand from the Customer Is Too Variable        47

          J: Too Many Entity Types (Products)   51

          K: High Schedule Variation         54

          L: Measurement System Broken         60

          M: Performance Characteristic Not Good Enough    63

          N: Planned Maintenance Takes Too Long       64

          O: Setup/Changeover Takes Too Long          65

          P: Too Much Unplanned Maintenance   68

          Q: Process Can’t Make Product at All   72

          R: Resource Usage Is Too High (Headcount Reduction)     75

          S: Inventory Is Too High  78

          T: Waste/Process Loss Too High         82

          U: High Forecast Variation         85

          V: Not Enough Sales        89

          W: Backlog of Orders Is Too High        91

          X: Payments Made to Suppliers Not Optimized        93

          Y: Accounts Receivable Are Too High   95

Chapter 4    Individual Step Process Problems         99

Chapter 5    Control—Tools Used at the End of All Projects         107

PART II      ROADMAPS TO FIND PROJECTS WHERE NO OBVIOUS CANDIDATES EXIST

Chapter 6    Discovery—Tools Applied to Identify Projects 115

PART III    ROADMAPS TO GUIDE IN THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF EACH LEAN SIGMA TOOL

Chapter 7    Tools  119

    01: 5 Whys  119

    02: 5S         122

    03: Affinity   130

    04: ANOVA  133

    05: Box Plot 141

    06: Capability—Attribute  143

    07: Capability—Continuous        146

    08: Cause & Effect (C&E) Matrix         153

    09: Chi-Square      157

    10: Control Charts 163

    11: Critical Path Analysis  171

    12: Customer Interviewing        174

    13: Customer Requirements Tree       183

    14: Customer Surveys    186

    15: Demand Profiling       193

    16: Demand Segmentation       196

    17: DOE—Introduction     202

    18: DOE—Screening        213

    19: DOE—Characterizing 222

    20: DOE—Optimizing       237

    21: Fishbone Diagram     249

    22: Handoff Map    253

    23: KPOVs and Data        257

    24: Load Chart      268

    25: MSA—Validity  272

    26: MSA—Attribute          276

    27: MSA—Continuous      284

    28: Multi-Cycle Analysis   294

    29: Multi-Vari Studies      300

    30: Murphy’s Analysis      306

    31: Normality Test 308

    32: Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE)    311

    33: Pareto Chart   318

    34: Poka Yoke (Mistake Proofing)       321

    35: Process FMEA  325

    36: Process Variables (Input/Output) Map     330

    37: Project Charter         333

    38: Pull Systems and Kanban    342

    39: Rapid Changeover (SMED)  354

    40: Regression      362

    41: SIPOC   372

    42: Spaghetti (Physical Process) Map  376

    43: Statistical Process Control (SPC)   380

    44: Swimlane Map 384

    45: Test of Equal Variance         389

    46: Time—Global Process Cycle Time  392

    47: Time—Individual Step Cycle Time  395

    48: Time—Process Lead Time    398

    49: Time—Replenishment Time  401

    50: Time—Takt Time       404

    51: Total Productive Maintenance        408

    52: t-Test—1-Sample      411

    53: t-Test—2-Sample      416

    54: t-Test—Paired 422

    55: Value Stream Map     423

"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.

About the Author:

Dr. Ian Wedgwood, Principal and Co-Founder of Haelan Group, has more than eighteen years of experience using, deploying, training, and consulting on Six Sigma and Lean Sigma. He has led and facilitated deployments in industries ranging from electronics and medical devices to chemicals and health care, and has trained and mentored numerous executives, champions, and belts. He holds a Ph.D. and First-Class Honors degree in Applied Mathematics from Scotland's St. Andrew's University. 

Excerpt. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

Preface

Preface

There is absolutely no doubt that Lean and Six Sigma as process improvement methodologies deliver results, as proven consistently countless times over literally thousands of projects across hundreds of businesses. What is inconsistent, however, is the efficiency by which the Project Leaders (Belts) and Teams reach the delivered solution and sometimes the effectiveness of the solution itself. Typically, this is considered to be the territory of the Consultant or Master Black Belt (MBB), whose role it is to guide the steps of the Black Belt or Green Belt through the available tools depending on the problem.

Therefore, the best guide requires

  • A deep enough experience of how to tackle a specific problem to conclusion with an efficient approach (as a Belt, I want to know exactly what path to follow in my project).

  • A broad enough experience to do this across multiple different types of problems that might be addressed in a business (as a Program Leader I need my MBB to know what path to follow for all projects and guide my Belts accordingly).

  • Technical skills to be able to guide the Belts in specific tool use (as a Belt, I want to know the practical steps involved in applying each tool).

Interestingly, this expands the common perception of the role of a Master Black Belt as a technical resource and measures that individual in addition by the efficiency and effectiveness of projects that they oversee (i.e., the rate of generation of business value from those projects).

Surprisingly (and fortunately) when asked the route to solution for a particular type of problem, the experienced guides are remarkably consistent in answer—it seems that if you have a specific problem type, then you should follow a specific route to solution. The intent of this book, therefore, is to capture those experiences and for multiple given project types lay down the appropriate routes to solution.

Audiences that find this book valuable are

  • Process Improvement Project Leaders (Green Belts and Black Belts), across all industries—Leading projects to improve processes using tools and methodologies that come under the Lean or Six Sigma banners.

  • Project Champions or Sponsors—Wondering what questions to ask of their Project Leaders and what they should see in terms of activity, as well as seeking to improve their project selection and scoping skills.

  • Technical Mentors (Master Black Belts)—Looking to improve their project and tools mentoring skills and to better select and scope projects.

  • Deployment Leaders—Seeking to better select and scope projects to improve the Return on Investment of the Program.

  • Consultants—Brushing up on skills as both a Technical Mentor and Deployment Lead.

The book is a little unusual in that it is designed to be a practical tool, used day-to-day by the readers to guide them through how to solve as many different types of business problems as possible using the Lean Sigma methodologies and tools. It is not meant to be a technical reference to take the place of the statistical tomes that are readily available. By analogy, this is how to drive the car, not how the car works.

The book is also unusual in that it is not designed to be read linearly from cover to cover, mainly due to a few simple issues:

  • There are a multitude of different problem types

  • Each problem type has a different route to solution

  • The same tools are used in the solution of multiple problem types

  • The application of each tool can vary subtly depending on the problem

The structure is in a form that best helps the reader start with their problem in hand and quickly progress to the solution. To that end, the book has three main parts:

Part I (Chapters 2–5)

Project Roadmaps that describe the route to solution for a wide range of problems. The text lists which tools to use, in which order, and why. To understand application of a particular tool in more detail, the reader should refer to Part III.

Part II (Chapter 6)

A Discovery Roadmap used to identify potential projects in a process where there are no obvious targets. This is often useful to businesses that are new to Lean Sigma and are not sure how to identify good projects to work on. To understand application of a particular tool in more detail, the reader should refer to Part III.

Part III (Chapter 7)

Individual tools roadmaps explaining in detail how to use each tool.

Throughout this book, I explain which tool to use and why it is used, so that Belts move from blind tool use to truly thinking about what they do and focus on the end goal of improving the process.

Processes and their respective problems are real-world phenomena, requiring practical actions and change. The best Belts I've found were the most practical thinkers, not the theorists, because any tool, even based on the cleverest theory, is only as good as the practical business solution it provides.


© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

"About this title" may belong to another edition of this title.

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