The Practical, Easy-to-Use Guide to Lean Sigma Problem-Solving
Lean Sigma delivers results—if you use the right tools and techniques. In Lean Sigma: A Practitioner’s Guide, Dr. Ian Wedgwood captures best-practice Lean Sigma experience from multiple projects and industries, helping any professional identify the solution that will work best—and implement it.
Wedgwood’s exclusive "project roadmaps" present the fastest, most effective route to solving a wide range of problems—and explain why those solutions make sense. His "discovery roadmaps" help you identify potential Lean Sigma projects, even in processes where there are no obvious targets.
The heart of Lean Sigma is Wedgwood's 48 individual "tools roadmaps": step-by-step instructions revealing exactly how and when to use all these Lean Sigma tools...
· 5 Whys
· Capability tools
· Cause & effect matrices
· Control charts
· Critical path analyses
· Customer tools
· Demand tools
· DOE tools
· Fishbone diagrams
· Handoff maps
· Load charts
· MSA tools
· Multi-Cycle analyses
· Multi-Vari studies
· Murphy’s analyses
· Normality tests
· Pareto charts
· Poka Yoke
· Process FMEA
· Process variables (I/O) maps
· Project charter
· Pull systems & Kanban
· Rapid changeover
· Spaghetti maps
· Swimlane maps
· Time tools
Whether you’re a Green Belt, Black Belt, Master, Project Champion, Sponsor, Deployment Leader, or consultant, this book will help you use Lean Sigma to solve far more problems, far more rapidly, and far more effectively.
Dr. Ian Wedgwood, Executive Director of Sigma Breakthrough Technologies, has more than ten years of experience using, deploying, training, and consulting on Six Sigma and Lean Sigma. He has led and facilitated deployments in industries ranging from electronics and medical devices to chemicals and health care, and has trained and mentored numerous executives, champions, and belts. He holds a Ph.D. and First-Class Honors degree in Applied Mathematics from Scotland’s St. Andrew’s University.
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
PART I PROJECT ROADMAPS TO SOLVE BUSINESS PROBLEMS
Chapter 2 Define—Tools Roadmap Applied to the Beginning of All Projects 13
Chapter 3 Global Process Problems 23
A: On-Time Delivery Issues 23
B: Capacity of Process Is Too Low 27
C: RTY, Defects, Accuracy, Quality, Scrap, and Rework Issues 29
D: % Uptime Is Too Low 33
E: Pace of Process Too Slow 36
F: Process Has Enough Capacity, But Fails Intermittently 38
G: Process Has Enough Capacity, But Process Lead Time Is Too Long 41
H: Individual Steps Meet Takt, Global Process Does Not 44
I: Demand from the Customer Is Too Variable 47
J: Too Many Entity Types (Products) 51
K: High Schedule Variation 54
L: Measurement System Broken 60
M: Performance Characteristic Not Good Enough 63
N: Planned Maintenance Takes Too Long 64
O: Setup/Changeover Takes Too Long 65
P: Too Much Unplanned Maintenance 68
Q: Process Can’t Make Product at All 72
R: Resource Usage Is Too High (Headcount Reduction) 75
S: Inventory Is Too High 78
T: Waste/Process Loss Too High 82
U: High Forecast Variation 85
V: Not Enough Sales 89
W: Backlog of Orders Is Too High 91
X: Payments Made to Suppliers Not Optimized 93
Y: Accounts Receivable Are Too High 95
Chapter 4 Individual Step Process Problems 99
Chapter 5 Control—Tools Used at the End of All Projects 107
PART II ROADMAPS TO FIND PROJECTS WHERE NO OBVIOUS CANDIDATES EXIST
Chapter 6 Discovery—Tools Applied to Identify Projects 115
PART III ROADMAPS TO GUIDE IN THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF EACH LEAN SIGMA TOOL
Chapter 7 Tools 119
01: 5 Whys 119
02: 5S 122
03: Affinity 130
04: ANOVA 133
05: Box Plot 141
06: Capability—Attribute 143
07: Capability—Continuous 146
08: Cause & Effect (C&E) Matrix 153
09: Chi-Square 157
10: Control Charts 163
11: Critical Path Analysis 171
12: Customer Interviewing 174
13: Customer Requirements Tree 183
14: Customer Surveys 186
15: Demand Profiling 193
16: Demand Segmentation 196
17: DOE—Introduction 202
18: DOE—Screening 213
19: DOE—Characterizing 222
20: DOE—Optimizing 237
21: Fishbone Diagram 249
22: Handoff Map 253
23: KPOVs and Data 257
24: Load Chart 268
25: MSA—Validity 272
26: MSA—Attribute 276
27: MSA—Continuous 284
28: Multi-Cycle Analysis 294
29: Multi-Vari Studies 300
30: Murphy’s Analysis 306
31: Normality Test 308
32: Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) 311
33: Pareto Chart 318
34: Poka Yoke (Mistake Proofing) 321
35: Process FMEA 325
36: Process Variables (Input/Output) Map 330
37: Project Charter 333
38: Pull Systems and Kanban 342
39: Rapid Changeover (SMED) 354
40: Regression 362
41: SIPOC 372
42: Spaghetti (Physical Process) Map 376
43: Statistical Process Control (SPC) 380
44: Swimlane Map 384
45: Test of Equal Variance 389
46: Time—Global Process Cycle Time 392
47: Time—Individual Step Cycle Time 395
48: Time—Process Lead Time 398
49: Time—Replenishment Time 401
50: Time—Takt Time 404
51: Total Productive Maintenance 408
52: t-Test—1-Sample 411
53: t-Test—2-Sample 416
54: t-Test—Paired 422
55: Value Stream Map 423
"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.
Dr. Ian Wedgwood, Principal and Co-Founder of Haelan Group, has more than eighteen years of experience using, deploying, training, and consulting on Six Sigma and Lean Sigma. He has led and facilitated deployments in industries ranging from electronics and medical devices to chemicals and health care, and has trained and mentored numerous executives, champions, and belts. He holds a Ph.D. and First-Class Honors degree in Applied Mathematics from Scotland's St. Andrew's University.
Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:
There is absolutely no doubt that Lean and Six Sigma as process improvement methodologies deliver results, as proven consistently countless times over literally thousands of projects across hundreds of businesses. What is inconsistent, however, is the efficiency by which the Project Leaders (Belts) and Teams reach the delivered solution and sometimes the effectiveness of the solution itself. Typically, this is considered to be the territory of the Consultant or Master Black Belt (MBB), whose role it is to guide the steps of the Black Belt or Green Belt through the available tools depending on the problem.
Therefore, the best guide requires
A deep enough experience of how to tackle a specific problem to conclusion with an efficient approach (as a Belt, I want to know exactly what path to follow in my project).
A broad enough experience to do this across multiple different types of problems that might be addressed in a business (as a Program Leader I need my MBB to know what path to follow for all projects and guide my Belts accordingly).
Technical skills to be able to guide the Belts in specific tool use (as a Belt, I want to know the practical steps involved in applying each tool).
Interestingly, this expands the common perception of the role of a Master Black Belt as a technical resource and measures that individual in addition by the efficiency and effectiveness of projects that they oversee (i.e., the rate of generation of business value from those projects).
Surprisingly (and fortunately) when asked the route to solution for a particular type of problem, the experienced guides are remarkably consistent in answer—it seems that if you have a specific problem type, then you should follow a specific route to solution. The intent of this book, therefore, is to capture those experiences and for multiple given project types lay down the appropriate routes to solution.
Audiences that find this book valuable are
Process Improvement Project Leaders (Green Belts and Black Belts), across all industries—Leading projects to improve processes using tools and methodologies that come under the Lean or Six Sigma banners.
Project Champions or Sponsors—Wondering what questions to ask of their Project Leaders and what they should see in terms of activity, as well as seeking to improve their project selection and scoping skills.
Technical Mentors (Master Black Belts)—Looking to improve their project and tools mentoring skills and to better select and scope projects.
Deployment Leaders—Seeking to better select and scope projects to improve the Return on Investment of the Program.
Consultants—Brushing up on skills as both a Technical Mentor and Deployment Lead.
The book is a little unusual in that it is designed to be a practical tool, used day-to-day by the readers to guide them through how to solve as many different types of business problems as possible using the Lean Sigma methodologies and tools. It is not meant to be a technical reference to take the place of the statistical tomes that are readily available. By analogy, this is how to drive the car, not how the car works.
The book is also unusual in that it is not designed to be read linearly from cover to cover, mainly due to a few simple issues:
There are a multitude of different problem types
Each problem type has a different route to solution
The same tools are used in the solution of multiple problem types
The application of each tool can vary subtly depending on the problem
The structure is in a form that best helps the reader start with their problem in hand and quickly progress to the solution. To that end, the book has three main parts:
Part I (Chapters 2–5)
Project Roadmaps that describe the route to solution for a wide range of problems. The text lists which tools to use, in which order, and why. To understand application of a particular tool in more detail, the reader should refer to Part III.
Part II (Chapter 6)
A Discovery Roadmap used to identify potential projects in a process where there are no obvious targets. This is often useful to businesses that are new to Lean Sigma and are not sure how to identify good projects to work on. To understand application of a particular tool in more detail, the reader should refer to Part III.
Part III (Chapter 7)
Individual tools roadmaps explaining in detail how to use each tool.
Throughout this book, I explain which tool to use and why it is used, so that Belts move from blind tool use to truly thinking about what they do and focus on the end goal of improving the process.
Processes and their respective problems are real-world phenomena, requiring practical actions and change. The best Belts I've found were the most practical thinkers, not the theorists, because any tool, even based on the cleverest theory, is only as good as the practical business solution it provides.
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