*Interactive Mathematics* is an innovative new learning system that covers the full series of developmental mathematics in an interactive, multimedia environment. *Interactive Math* uses animation, video, audio, graphics, and math tools to support multiple learning styles. It is a program complete with instruction, practice, applications, and assessment. ** Introduction **— A brief teaching statement directs the reader's attention toward mastering a particular skill. A visual representation of the skill is also presented.

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Elayn Martin-Gay, "University of New Orleans" An award-winning instructor and best-selling author, Elayn Martin-Gay has taught mathematics at the University of New Orleans for more than 25 years. Her numerous teaching awards include the local University Alumni Association's Award for "Excellence in Teaching," and "Outstanding Developmental Educator" at University of New Orleans, presented by the Louisiana Association of Developmental Educators. Prentice Hall is pleased to announce the new Third Editions of "Basic College Mathematics," "Introductory Algebra," "Intermediate Algebra," and "Algebra A Combined Approach" and two new first editions, "Basic College Mathematics with Early Integers," and "Developmental Mathematics," Elayn Martin-Gay also authors a best-selling (c)2005 hardback series in developmental mathematics. Prior to writing textbooks, Elayn developed an acclaimed series of lecture videos to support developmental mathematics students in their quest for success. These highly successful videos originally served as the foundation material for her texts. Today, the videos are specific to each book in the Martin-Gay series. Elayn also originated the "Chapter Test Prep Video CDs" to help students during their most "teachable moment" ---as they prepare for a test. Elayn's experience has made her aware of how busy instructors are and what a difference quality supports make. For this reason, she created the "Instructor-to-Instructor" video series. These videos provide instructors with suggestions for presenting specific math topic and concepts in basic mathematics, prealgebra, beginning algebra, and intermediate algebra. Seasoned instructors can use them as a source for alternateapproaches in the classroom. New or adjunct faculty may find the CDs useful for review. They are a great resource for suggestions regarding areas they may wish to emphasize, or common trouble areas students experience, that instructors my wish to highlight. With her textbooks series, the Chapter Test Prep Video Cd, and CD Lecture series, Elayn has sought to put success within the reach of every student and instructor.

**About This Book**

*Introductory Algebra,* was written to provide a **solid foundation** in algebra for students who might have had no previous experience in algebra. Specific care was taken to ensure that students have the most **up-to-date relevant** text preparation for their next mathematics course or for nonmathematical courses that require an understanding of algebraic fundamentals. I have tried to achieve this by writing a user-friendly text that is keyed to objectives and contains many worked-out examples. As suggested by the AMATYC Crossroads Document and the NCTM Standards (plus Addenda), real-life and real-data applications, data interpretation, conceptual understanding, problem solving, writing, cooperative learning, appropriate use of technology, mental .mathematics, number sense, critical thinking, and geometric concepts are emphasized and integrated throughout the book.

The many factors that contributed to the success of the first edition have been retained. In preparing the Second Edition, I considered comments and suggestions of colleagues, students, and many users of the prior edition throughout the country.

*Introductory Algebra,* Second Edition is part of a series of texts that can include *Basic College Mathematics,* Second Edition; *Prealgebra,* Third Edition; *Intermediate Algebra,* Second Edition; and a combined text, *Algebra A Combined Approach,* Second Edition. Throughout the series pedagogical features are designed to develop student proficiency in algebra and problem solving, and to prepare students for future courses.

**Key Pedagogical Features and Changes in the Second Edition**

**Readability and Connections.** I have tried to make the writing style as clear as possible while still retaining the mathematical integrity of the content. When a new topic is presented, an effort has been made to relate the new ideas to those that students may already know. Constant reinforcement and connections within problem-solving strategies, data interpretation, geometry, patterns, graphs, and situations from everyday life can help students gradually master both new and old information. In addition, each section begins with a list of objectives covered in the section. Clear organization of section material based on objectives further enhances readability.

**Problem-Solving Process.** This is formally introduced in Chapter 2 with a four-step process that is integrated throughout the text. The four steps are **Understand, Translate, Solve,** and **Interpret.** The repeated use of these steps in a variety of examples shows their wide applicability. Reinforcing the steps can increase students' comfort level and confidence in tackling problems.

**Applications and Connections.** Every effort was made to include as many interesting and relevant real-life applications as possible throughout the text in both worked-out examples and exercise sets. In the Second Edition, the applications have been thoroughly revised and updated, and the number of applications has increased. The applications help to motivate students and strengthen their understanding of mathematics in the real world. They show connections to a wide range of fields including agriculture, allied health, anthropology, art, astronomy, biology, business, chemistry, construction, consumer affairs, earth science, education, entertainment, environmental issues, finance, geography, government, history, medicine, music, nutrition, physics, sports, travel, and weather. Many of the applications are based on recent real data. Sources for data include newspapers, magazines, publicly held companies, government agencies, special-interest groups, research organizations, and reference books. Opportunities for obtaining your own real data are also included. See the Applications Index on page xx.

**Practice Problems.** Throughout the text, each worked-out example has a parallel Practice Problem placed next to the example in the margin. These invite students to be actively involved in the learning process before beginning the end-of-section exercise set. Practice Problems immediately reinforce a skill after it is developed. Answers appear at the bottom of the page for quick reference.

**Concept Checks.** These margin exercises are appropriately placed throughout the text. They allow students to gauge their grasp of an idea as it is being explained in the text. Concept Checks stress conceptual understanding at the point of use and help suppress misconceived notions before they start. Answers appear at the bottom of the page.

**Increased Integration of Geometry Concepts.** In addition to the traditional topics in introductory and intermediate algebra courses, this text contains a strong emphasis on problem solving and geometric concepts, which are integrated throughout. The geometry concepts presented are those most important to a student's understanding of algebra, and I have included many applications and exercises devoted to this topic. These are marked with the geometry icon. Also, geometric figures, and a review of angles, lines, and special triangles are covered in the appendices.

**Helpful Hints.** Helpful Hints contain practical advice on applying mathematical concepts. These are found throughout the text and strategically placed where students are most likely to need immediate reinforcement. Helpful Hunts are highlighted for quick reference.

**Visual Reinforcement of Concepts.** The Second Edition contains a wealth of graphics, models, photographs, and illustrations to visually clarify and reinforce concepts. These include new and updated bar graphs, line graphs, calculator screens, application illustrations, and geometric figures.

**Calculator and Graphing Calculator Explorations.** These optional explorations offer point-of-use instruction, through examples and exercises, on the proper use of scientific and graphing calculators as tools in the mathematical problem-solving process. Placed appropriately throughout the text, Calculator and Graphing Calculator Explorations also reinforce concepts learned in the corresponding section and motivate discovery-based learning.

Additional exercises building on the skill developed in the Explorations may be found in exercise sets throughout the text. Exercises requiring a calculator are marked with the calculator icon. Exercises requiring a graphing calculator are marked with the calculator icon. An Introduction to Using a Graphing Utility is included in the appendix.

**Study Skills Reminders.** New Study Skills Reminder boxes are integrated throughout the text. They are strategically placed to constantly remind and encourage students as they hone their study skills. A new **Section 1.1,** Tips on Success in Mathematics, provides an overview of the Study Skills needed to succeed in math. These are reinforced by the Study Skills Reminder boxes throughout the text.

**Focus On.** Appropriately placed throughout each chapter, these are divided into Focus on Mathematical Connections, Focus on Business and Career, Focus on the Real World, and Focus on History. They are written to help students develop effective habits for engaging in investigations of other branches of mathematics, understanding the importance of mathematics in various careers and in the world of business, and seeing the relevance of mathematics in both the present and past through critical thinking exercises and group activities.

**Chapter Highlights.** Found at the end of each chapter, these contain key definitions, concepts, and examples to help students understand and retain what they have learned and help them organize their notes and study for tests.

**Chapter Activity.** These features occur once per chapter at the end of the chapter, often serving as a chapter wrap-up. For individual or group completion, the Chapter Activity, usually hands-on or data-based, complements and extends to concepts of the chapter, allowing students to make decisions and interpretations and to think and write about algebra.

**Integrated Reviews.** These "mid-chapter reviews" are appropriately placed once per chapter. Integrated Reviews allow students to review and assimilate the many different skills learned separately over several sections before moving on to related material in the chapter.

**Pretests.** Each chapter begins with a pretest that is designed to help students identify areas where they need to pay special attention in the upcoming chapter.

**Chapter Review and Test.** The end of each chapter contains a review of topics introduced in the chapter. The Chapter Review offers exercises that are keyed to sections of the chapter. The Chapter Test is a practice test and is not keyed to sections of the chapter.

**Cumulative Review.** These features are found at the end of each chapter (except Chapters R and 1). Each problem contained in the Cumulative Review is an earlier worked example in the text that is referenced in the back of the book along with the answer. Students who need to see a complete worked-out solution, with explanation, can do so by turning to the appropriate example in the text.

**Student Resource Icons.** At the beginning of each section, videotape and CD, tutorial software, Prentice Hall Tutor Center, and solutions manual icons are displayed. These icons help reinforce that these learning aids are available should students wish to use them to help them review concepts and skills at their own pace. These items have direct correlation to the text and emphasize the text's methods of solution.

**Functional Use of Color and New Design.** Elements of this text are highlighted with color or design to make it easier for students to read and study. Special care has been taken to use color within solutions to examples or in the art to **help clarify, distinguish, or connect concepts.**

**Exercise Sets.** Each text section ends with an Exerci...

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