Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology (5th Edition)

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9780130813589: Seeing Ourselves: Classic, Contemporary, and Cross-Cultural Readings in Sociology (5th Edition)

Drawing on the work of the pioneers of sociology, as well as that of the men and women conducting today's research, this best-selling collection of 77 classic, contemporary, and cross-cultural articles conveys sociology's diversity of viewpoints and methodologies. Important issues and debates are presented by scholars from many positions on the political spectrum, and capture the fascinating complexity of the social world. This unique anthology contains several articles for each of the general topics it covers. These topics include: the sociological perspective; sociological research; culture; society; socialization; social interaction in everyday life; groups and organizations; deviance; sexuality; social stratification; gender; race and ethnicity; aging and the elderly; the economy and work; politics, government, and the military; family; religion, education; health and medicine; population and urbanization; environment and society; collective behavior and social movements; and social change and modernity. For anyone interested in a look at this discipline's perspective and application to shaping tomorrow's world.

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From the Inside Flap:

Preface

"Change is one thing," Bertrand Russell pointed out, "progress is another." This new edition of Seeing Ourselves brings Russell's words to life. To be sure, the readings in this anthology highlight the many ways our world is changing. But pointing to change is just part of the history. In addition, classroom readings must help students ask questions about the shape of our society: Are social changes–involving technology, the economy, international relations, and social movements at home–improving quality of life? For whom? What should our goals for the future be? Our purpose in revising Seeing Ourselves is to present to students the many social changes that are shaping their lives as well as to help them think critically about the kind of world they will build in the twenty-first century.

Seeing Ourselves presents the very best of sociological thought, from the work of the discipline's pioneers to the men and women who are doing today's cutting-edge research. The selections explore both US. society and global trends. This 'feeder provides excellent material for a wide range 'of courses, including introductory sociology, social problems, cultural anthropology, social theory, social stratification, American studies, women's studies, and marriage and the family.

THE THREE C'S: CLASSIC,
CONTEMPORARY, AND CROSS-
CULTURAL

Since its introduction a decade ago, Seeing Ourselves has been the most popular reader in the discipline. The new, fifth edition offers seventy-seven selections that represent the breadth and depth of sociology. Seeing Ourselves is not only the most extensive anthology available, it is the only one that systematically weaves together three kinds of selections. For each general topic typically covered in a sociology course, three types of articles are included: classic, contemporary, and cross-cultural.

Classic articles—thirty in all—are sociological statements of recognized importance and lasting significance. Included here are the ideas of sociology's founders and shakers—including Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, Ferdinand Tönnies, as well as Margaret Mead, W.E.B. Du Bois, Louis Wirth, George Herbert Mead, Thomas Robert Malthus, and Charles Horton Cooley. Also found here are more recent contributions by Alfred Kinsey, Jessie Bernard, Robert Merton, Erving Goffrnan, Peter Berger, Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore, C. Wright Mills, Talcott Parsons, Leslie White, and Jo Freeman.

We recognize that not everyone will agree about precisely which selections warrant the term "classic." We hope, however, that instructors will be pleased to see the work of so many outstanding men and women—carefully edited with undergraduate students in mind—available in a single, affordable source.

Twenty-four contemporary selections focus on current sociological issues, controversies, and applications. These articles show sociologists at work and demonstrate the importance of ongoing research. They make for stimulating reading and offer thought-provoking insights about ourselves and the surrounding world. Among the contemporary selections in Seeing Ourselves are Earl Babbie on the importance of sociological research, George Ritzer on McDonaldization and jobs, James Davison Hunter on today's "culture wars," Jay Coakley offering a sociological analysis of sport, Dianne Herman pointing out the cultural roots of sexual violence, Deborah Tannen explaining why the two sexes often talk past each other, Robert Michael et al. reporting how many sexual partners US. adults really have, George Gerbner on television and violence, Andrew Hacker on the state of black and white America, Patricia Hill Collies analyzing the plight of women of color, Nijole Benokraitis on patterns of subtle discrimination, John Macionis sketching the shape of the coming "cybersociety," William Julius Wilson describing the rising desperation of some inner-city residents, William O'Hare profiling affluent Latinos, Roseann Giarrusso et al. on the increasing importance of grandparenting, Catharine MacKinnon's view of pornography as a form of domination, David Popenoe's contention that fatherhood is in serious decline, Jonathan Kozol's charges of "savage inequalities" in our schools, Ruth Zambrana et al. on the health of Latino families, James Jasper and Dorothy Nelkin's account of the animal rights movement, Lester Brown's survey of the state of the world's environment, and Joe Feagin and Robert Parker's assessment of the role of big business in the life of today's cities.

The twenty-three cross-cultural selections offer sociological insights about the striking cultural diversity of the United States and the larger world. Included are well-known works such as "Body Ritual among the Nacirema" by Horace Miner, "India's Sacred Cow" by Marvin Harris, "The Amish: A Small Society" by John Hostetler, J.M. Carrier's "Homosexual Behavior in Cross-Cultural Perspective," and Elijah Anderson's "The Code of the Streets." Other articles explore issues and problems including the state of American Indians, how familiar gestures can offend people in other societies, how Japanese and US. business people behave according to different sets of rules, the staggering burden of African poverty, women's social standing around the world, the rising number of elderly people worldwide, cross-cultural patterns of mate selection, Islam's view of women, academic achievement among Southeast Asian immigrants, and the rising global population. Cross-cultural selections stimulate critical thinking about social diversity in North America as well as broaden students' understanding of other cultures. ORGANIZATION OF THE READER

This reader parallels the chapter sequence common to textbooks used in introductory sociology. Instructors can easily and effectively use these articles in a host of other courses, just as teachers can assign articles in whatever order they wish. For each of the twenty-three general topics, a cluster of three or four articles is presented, each cluster including at least one classic, one contemporary, and one cross-cultural selection. The expansive coverage of these seventy-seven articles ensures that instructors can choose readings well suited to their own classes. A NOTE ON LANGUAGE

All readings are presented in their original form; the editors have not altered any author's language. Readers should be aware that some of the older selections—especially the classics—use male pronouns rather than more contemporary gender-neutral terminology, and one article employs the term "Negro." We have not changed the language in any article, wishing not to violate the historical authenticity of any document. That said, we urge faculty and students, with the original articles in hand, to consider the significance of changing language in their analysis of the author's ideas. TEACHING FEATURES

This reader has two features that enhance the learning of students. First, a brief introduction, preceding each selection, presents the essential argument and highlights important issues to keep in mind while completing the reading. Second, each article is followed by three or four "Critical-Thinking Questions" that develop the significance of the reading, help students evaluate their own learning, and stimulate class discussion. INTERNET SITES

Readers are also invited to visit our sociology Web sites. At prenhall/macionis students will find online study guides for the Macionis introductory texts (Sociology and Society: The Basics), including discussion topics, test questions, and Internet links. Another site, thesociologypage (or macionis), provides information about the field of sociology, biographies of key sociologists, recent news of interest to sociologists, and more than fifty links to worthwhile Internet sites.

Also, prenhall/benokraitis offers more than 400 "hot links" to topics such as theory, sociological research, culture, socialization, interaction and communication, sexuality, race and ethnicity, gender roles, aging, work, marriage, health, family violence, and social change.

INSTRUCTOR'S TEST
ITEM FILE

Prentice Hall also supports Seeing Ourselves with a Test Item File, prepared by Leda A. Thompson. For each of the seventy-seven selections in this reader, the Test Item File provides instructors with six multiple-choice questions (with answers) and several essay questions for easy test creation. The multiple-choice questions are also available on computer disk for users of IBM and Macintosh personal computers. CHANGES TO THE FIFTH EDITION

We are grateful to our colleagues at hundreds of colleges and universities who have made Seeing Ourselves a part of their courses. Energized by this unparalleled reception, the editors have now produced an even stronger edition. Here are the key changes:

Sixteen new articles, of a total of seventy-seven, appear in the fifth edition. As one might expect, changes to classic selections are limited: in this case, to a new selection from Alfred Kinsey's groundbreaking study of human sexuality. There are eight new contemporary selections, including Jay Coakley, "How Would a Sociologist Look at Sport?"; Earl Babbie, "The Importance of Social Research"; George Ritzer, "McJobs: McDonaldization and the Workplace"; Robert Michael et al., "Sex in America: How Many Partners Do We Have?"; Andrew Hacker, "Who Has How Much and Why?"; Roseann Giarrusso et al., "How the Grandparent Role Is Changing"; Jonathan Kozol, "Savage Inequalities: Children in US. Schools"; and James Jasper and Dorothy Nelkin, "The Animal Rights Movement as a Moral Crusade."

In addition, this fifth edition offers seven new cross-cultural selections, enriching the anthology's multicultural and global content. The new selections in this category are Elijah Anderson, "The Code of the Streets"; C. Matthew Snipp, "A Comeback for American Indians"; Naomi Neft and Ann D. Levine, "Women in Today's World"; Frank Hobbs and Bonnie Damon, "Our Aging World"; Adrian Karatnycky, "Freedom in the World: A Global Survey"; J. Kenneth Smail, "Let's Reduce Global Population!"; and Janet Hadley, "Abortion Movements in Poland, Great Britain, arid the United States." A new cluster of articles on human sexuality. Many sociology courses now include discussion of human sexuality. In this revision, therefore, the editors have added three selections on this topic: Alfred Kinsey's classic study of sexual orientation; Robert Michael, John Gagnon, Edward Laumann, and Gina Kolata's "Sex in America: How Many Partners Do We Have?"; and J. M. Carrier's "Homosexual Behavior in Cross-Cultural Perspective." A continued emphasis on diversity. In Seeing Ourselves, "diversity" involves three important objectives. First is global content. The editors have worked hard to include in this collection the work of sociologists from around the world. Twenty-one of the selections in this edition deal primarily with social patterns beyond the borders of the United States. Second, "diversity" refers to multicultural issues. The selections in this edition of Seeing Ourselves highlights the lives of African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos, and American Indians and other native peoples, as well as women and men from all social class backgrounds. This anthology, in short, brings to the center the lives of people often pushed to the margins of society. Third, "diversity" means presenting to students arguments from different points of view. Using this reader, students will grapple with important issues and debates reflecting various positions on the political spectrum. A small change in topic ordering. In this edition, we have reversed the order of the cluster dealing with gender and the cluster dealing with race and ethnicity. This small change, reflecting the suggestion of several classroom instructors, gives students more experience discussing social inequality before they focus on race, a topic that some students find difficult to discuss in class.
As in the past, we invite faculty and students to share their thoughts and reactions to this reader. Write to John Macionis at the Department of Anthropology-Sociology, Olof Palme House, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022-9623 or to Nijole Benokraitis at the Department of Sociology, University of Baltimore, 1420 North Charles Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201-5779. E-mail addresses are macionis@kenyon and nbenokraitis@ubmail.ubalt ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The editors are grateful to a number of colleagues for their help in preparing this reader. First, the relationship between writers and publishers is a distinctive mix of friendship, creative tension, and a shared commitment to do the best job possible. For her unwavering support from the outset, we wish to express our gratitude to Nancy Roberts, publisher, at Prentice Hall. Sharon Chambliss, managing editor for sociology, coordinated myriad tasks and shepherded this edition's production with her usual calm and good cheer. Special thanks go to Barbara Reilly, production editor, for her commitment to excellence and her meticulous attention to detail.

Nijole Benokraitis is grateful to Linda Fair, secretary of the Division of Criminology, Criminal Justice, and Social Policy, at the University of Baltimore and to Taneisha Sanders, graduate research assistant, for their invaluable assistance in preparing many of the articles for publication. Both editors are indebted to Amy Marsh Macionis for her skillful editorial review of the entire manuscript.

A number of other colleagues offered critical comments, which have improved the final book: Afrola Anwary, Concordia College; Kathleen A. Asburg, Community College of Philadelphia; Frank Barter, Community College of Philadelphia; Scott H. Beck, East Tennessee State University; Marshall A. Botkin, Frederick Community College; Joseph E. Boyle, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Julie V Brown, University of North Carolina, Greensboro; Meredith A. Myers, University of Georgia; Ron Pagnucco, Mt. St. Mary's College; Barry Perlman, Community College of Philadelphia; Salvador Rivera, State University of New York—Cobleskill; Ron L. Shamufell, Community College of Philadelphia; and Randall J. Thomson, North Carolina State University.

Finally, recognizing the fact that the academic profession too often undervalues the core role of teaching, John Macionis and Nijole Benokraitis dedicate Seeing Ourselves to the men and women who have committed their lives to educating today's undergraduates, helping them to develop the skills and the insights that will play a part in reshaping tomorrow's world.

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