Public Order: A Global Perspective

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9780130417145: Public Order: A Global Perspective

For Public Order Policing courses and advanced police courses in a Criminal Justice Program. Representing a pioneering effort in the field of public order policing, this collection of articles-written by both practitioners and scholars from all continents of the world-presents public order from a global perspective. The articles address a multitude of public disorder situations and strategies (i.e. demonstrations, protests, celebrations, ceremonies, labor activity, traffic control, sports violence, inter-group violence and terrorism) to present the most comprehensive and contemporary perspectives on this subject. The articles cover a great variety of nations and offer a much more diverse collection of readings than the traditional focus on Western democracies.

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From the Back Cover:

Public order is a major concern for government and police everywhere. In a world where we face protests, riots, terrorism, and quality of life demands that all threaten public order, the police in both Western and developing countries are anxious to understand the nature of these problems and develop strategies to bring peace and stability to their region without violating human rights. Public Order: A Global Perspective presents issues concerning public disorder from a multitude of countries to provide the audience with the most comprehensive perspective on this subject. This book represents a pioneering effort in the field of policing, as it is the first book that brings together a collection of articles on public order written by both practitioners and scholars from all continents of the world.

Features
  • Timely and relevant current problems of public disorder throughout the world such as the Middle East, Europe and the United States.
  • Articles that cover a much more diverse set of nations than the traditional focus on Western democracies.
  • Many chapters that portray the full range of public disorder situations that confront police.
  • Provides the reader with the most up to date information on current development in public order policing.

Excerpt. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

Public order policing, which is the subject of this book, represents a major concern for governments in general and the police in particular everywhere. Many chapters included in this book are based on original papers presented at the Sixth Annual Meeting of International Police Executive Symposium (IPES; see Appendix A for more details) held in Hyderabad in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, July 13-16, 1999. These chapters have been subsequently revised several times in order to present the most contemporary perspectives on the subject. Some other chapters were specifically written for this book and have not been published previously, while still others were previously published as journal articles but have been updated to reflect changes in recent years. It is a pioneering effort in the field of public order policing, as this is the first book that brings together a collection of chapters written by both practitioners and scholars from all continents of the world. It includes material on the subject in a great variety of nations, a much more diverse set than the traditional focus on Western democracies. Many of the chapters also portray the full range of public order situations that confront police, not just public protest as the problem of public order policing.

"Public order" may mean different things to different people. Most police experts in the United States adopt a narrow definition of the term as referring to order maintenance activities during routine patrol and traffic enforcement. Contributors to this book tend to take on a broad and diverse view of public order policing on the basis of their professional experiences and academic research. In this broad definition, public order is viewed as involving management of various activities that disturb or will disturb public peace by either overt or covert actions on various scales, that demand both routine and special police interventions. A variety of public order problems is therefore considered within the realm of public order policing, including demonstrations, protests, riots, celebrations, ceremonies, street vendors, labor activity, traffic control, sports violence, intergroup violence, certain types of crimes, and terrorism. Such a broad definition of public order issues may raise questions from police experts in the United States who, for example, may accept overt political protests as a public order issue but not terrorism that involves covert actions. But since terrorist activities have become a more common police concern after the September 11, 2001, attack in the United States and in many Middle Eastern countries, such as the postwar Iraq, and also since terrorism destroys peace and public order and requires active police intervention, we regard it as a public order issue. Crimes may not strike U.S. police experts as a public order problem either, but certain crimes are viewed as such by some contributors through the lens of police organizations rather than through the lens of various public order problems.

As we reviewed the chapters in this book, it became clear to us that there are several consistent themes in public order policing that transcend national or regional boundaries with wide policy implications for the global community. These themes include special-issue protests, economic and social demands, terrorism and political violence, and crime problems as public disorder. Some chapters also examine community policing and private security as strategies in policing public order. We have therefore divided this book into five sections that reflect these public order issues and strategies: "Issue-Oriented Protests," "Mass Actions Centering on Quality-of-Life Demands," "Impact of Terrorism on Public Order Policing," "Crime as Public Disorder," and "Public Order Policing within the Context of Community Policing."

Chapters under "Issue-Oriented Protests" discuss public order events such as demonstrations and protests that do not present a clear pattern, a central theme, or a consistent issue. Each protest tends to focus on only a particular issue unrelated to other protests. Demonstrators involved in issue-oriented protests are also quite diverse and usually represent particular groups of individuals. Chapters under "Mass Actions Centering on Quality-of-Life Demands" examine protests that are driven primarily by economic concerns and secondarily by social issues and political problems. Citizens in these protests demand, for example, equitable economic opportunities, union rights, employment benefits, and better living conditions. Chapters under "Impact of Terrorism on Public Order Policing" are related to terrorism. Two of the three chapters in this section represent some U.S. perspectives and strategies, while the third chapter examines political violence and terrorist events from an Indian perspective. Chapters under "Crime as Public Disorder" define public disorder situations as crime problems from the police organizational perspectives. Such crime problems may include, for example, property crimes during riots or may be caused by individuals motivated by material gains. Chapters under "Public Order Policing within the Context of Community Policing" do not focus on a particular type of public disorder. Instead, the two chapters in this section discuss public order management as related to community policing and demonstrate how this recent development in policing provides a new frame of reference for police agencies engaged in public order policing.

The organization of the chapters in this book under the five previously described themes does not imply that they represent an exhaustive list of public order issues and strategies concerning the police in the world. Nor do we claim that countries not represented in this book have to confront the same public order issues. We are aware that we do not have as many contributors from as many countries as we have desired. The lack of contributors from such countries as Russia, Yugoslavia, Israel, Iraq, the Philippines, and Venezuela does not imply that these countries' perspectives are unimportant. Nonetheless, the world coverage of public order policing in this book is much wider than what one would normally find in similar publications. Despite the differences in the ways public unrest develops and the themes in public protests, there are some common features in terms of policing these events. The measures that governments and police all over the world adopt to contain and control such events are quite similar. The issues, lessons, and strategies presented in this book therefore are clearly relevant to managing public order problems in many countries in the world with serious public disorders, such as postwar Iraq, particularly when the Iraqi people formed their own legitimate government in the future. Also, because of the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, many changes have taken place in policing around the world, making many of the issues and strategies elaborated in this book more timely and relevant to policing in general.

The five sections under which the chapters are grouped are not meant to indicate that these sections are mutually exclusive. Each chapter is put under a particular section on the basis of its primary content, not on the country the chapter represents. The titles for these sections only suggest thematic emphasis of the chapters presented and do not correspond with the geography of the countries represented. If a paper on a European or North American country happens to be put under "Issue-Oriented Protests," it does not imply that there are no mass actions regarding quality-of-life demands in Europe and North America. Nor does it mean that other nations not represented in this section do not have issue-oriented protests. The organization of several African countries under "Mass Actions Centering on Quality-of-Life Demands" does not mean that they confront only quality-of-life concerns. There are clearly issue-oriented protests, and the public order is also disturbed by terrorism and crimes in Africa. The United States is treated primarily under terrorism, but there are plenty of issue-oriented protests and mass actions dealing with quality-of-life demands in the United States. A number of civil disturbances, riots, and protests in the United States related to race, for example, would qualify as quality-of-life demands. Many U.S. cities, for instance, have trouble policing street vendors and the associated difficulties of maintaining public order. This is no different from the several African nations where the same problem exists.

With contributors from all five continents of the world who include both police practitioners and scholars, it is natural that the style of various chapters is not always consistent. Practitioners, for example, tend to describe their experiences and policies with relatively fewer citations to sources. Researchers and scholars pay more attention to concepts, cite more sources, and write at a relatively higher level of academic theorization. We do not feel that it is appropriate for us to set a particular standard or style for authors coming from such radically different cultural, political, and professional backgrounds. Rather, we believe that we would do the readers a better service to maintain the originality of these chapters.

The contributors to the book are very open and frank in discussing how they police public order events, particularly in narrating their countries' situations and their policing approaches. Their presentations should enable police everywhere to learn important lessons from one another. Candid presentations have greatly facilitated the most important objective of this book: exchange of opinions, views, and experiences among nations-large and small, rich and poor, and ancient and modern-regarding how their police handle public order events, maintain the peace in tumultuous times, and work within the norms of acceptable professional behaviors in the midst of unruly, angry, and passionate developments. We hope that the contributions will encourage police adherence to unive...

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