Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach (7th Edition)

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9780130176103: Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach (7th Edition)

For courses in Organizational Behavior, Organizational Psychology, and Industrial Psychology. Using carefully developed group exercises and simulations that have been proven over a period of 30 years, this best-selling experiential approach to the concepts of organizational behavior exposes students to general psychological principles, and helps them develop skills in applying that knowledge to social and organizational situations. The unique collection of exercises, self-analysis techniques, and role plays helps students not only learn the specifics of the subject , but learn about their own strengths and weaknesses-they become more skilled at analyzing behavior in organizations, learn what actions are appropriate for different situations, and acquire a repertoire of behaviors and skills so they can be effective organizational members.

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From the Publisher:

This perennial favorite conveys the concepts of organizational behavior through experiential learning, using carefully developed group exercises and simulations that have been proven over a period of 20 years. It is designed for professors who want t o create a unique, effective, enjoyable learning experience for students. The Sixth Edition represents a major revision of content and an enhancement of quality.

From the Inside Flap:

Preface

This seventh edition of Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach is the latest improvement on an experiment that began over 30 years ago. The first edition of this book was developed at MIT in the late 1960s and was the first application of the principles of experience-based learning to teaching in the field of organizational psychology. Since then the field has changed, the practice of experience-based learning has grown in acceptance and sophistication, and we, the authors, have changed.

The field of organizational behavior has grown rapidly in this time period and is today a complex tapestry of historical trends, contemporary trends, and new emerging trends. In the Introduction that follows we will describe these trends in more detail.

In comparison with previous editions, more emphasis has been placed upon cross-cultural issues throughout the book and integrative cases have been added at the end. We made substantial revisions in every chapter, adding recent research findings, new information on companies, and, in some chapters, new exercises. As always, our objective was not to overwhelm students with a comprehensive array of theories and findings, but to provide them with the essential materials and experiences they need to become effective managers and good employees.

Since the publication of our first edition, a number of other experience-based texts have been published in organizational behavior and other management specialties, and experiential-learning approaches have become widely accepted in higher education, particularly in programs for adult learners. The value of educational approaches that link the concepts and techniques of academia with learners' personal experiences in the real world is no longer questioned. In this latest edition we have attempted to reflect the state of the art in the practice of experiential learning and to bring these approaches to bear on the latest thinking and research in the field of organizational behavior.

This book is intended for students and managers who wish to explore the personal relevance and conceptual bases of the phenomena of organizational behavior. There are two goals in the experiential learning process. One is to learn the specifics of a particular subject matter. The other is to learn about one's own strengths and weaknesses as a learner (i.e., learning how to learn from experience). Thus, the book is focused upon exercises, self-analysis techniques, and role plays to make the insights of behavioral science meaningful and relevant to practicing managers and students. Each chapter is designed as an educational intervention that facilitates each stage of the experience-based learning process. Exercises and simulations are designed to produce experiences that create the phenomena of organizational behavior. Observation schemes and methods are introduced to facilitate understanding of these experiences. Theories and models are added to aid in forming generalizations. And finally, the intervention is structured in a way that encourages learners to experiment with and test what they have learned either in class or other areas of their lives. Our purpose is to teach students how to learn so that they will become continuous learners, capable of responding to demands for change and new skills throughout their career. Learning is no longer a special activity reserved for the classroom, but an integral and explicit part of work itself.

In addition to teaching students to be life-long learners, the exercises and the order of the chapters are designed to facilitate self-knowledge and team work. Students should leave this course with a much clearer understanding of themselves and the effect their behavior has on others. Students work in the same learning groups throughout the course. In these groups, members share their experiences and provide support, advice, feedback, and friendship to each other. A by-product of this group approach is the creation of a class environment that facilitates learning.

A companion readings book, The Organizational Behavior Reader, Seventh Edition, is also published by Prentice Hall. Many footnotes in this seventh volume, what we call the workbook, make reference to articles that have been reprinted there. These are simply cited as "Reader" in the footnote entries.

A preface is a place to publicly thank the many people who have helped us. Our feelings of pride in our product are tempered by the great indebtedness we feel to many others whose ideas and insights preceded ours. It is a tribute to the spirit of collaboration that pervades our field that the origin of many of the exercises recorded here is unknown. We have tried throughout the manuscript to trace the origins of those exercises we know about and in the process we may, in many areas, fall short of the original insight. For that we can only apologize. The major unnamed contributors are our students. In a very real sense, this book could never have been completed without their active participation in our explorations.

We wish to thank James McIntyre, our coauthor in the first four editions of this book, for his generous and creative contributions. While much has changed and will continue to change through successive editions of this book, Jim's presence will always be there.

The many instructors who, as users of previous editions of our text, have shared their experiences, resources, insights, and criticisms; have been invaluable guides in the revision process. Suzanne Adams, Janet Bennett, Mathew Crichton, Bill Essig, Howard Feldman, Barbara Gayle, Tom Howe, Abigale Lane, Stephen Miller, Asbjorn Osland, Stella Ting-Toomey, and Judith White were very helpful in a variety of ways. The reviewers did an excellent, thorough job: John Dopp, Gene Hendrix, Avis Johnson, Stephen Miller, and Dennis O'Connor. Bruce Drake deserves a special mention for selflessly contributing his formidable editorial skills to this project.

Our greatest debt of gratitude goes to Susan Mann research assistant and editorial critic extraordinaire. The reference librarians at the University of Portland – Tony Greiner, Susan Hinken, Pam Horan, Torie Scott, Heidi Senior, as well as the director, Rich Hines, – all went well beyond the call of duty in tracking down articles and correct citations. Ron Hill, dean at the University of Portland's business school, and the Robert B. Pamplin Jr. Foundation provided support for this project. We're grateful to Gwynn Klobes and Michael Kuchler, and all the student workers at the University of Portland business school who lent a helping hand to this project. We owe a special debt to Melissa O'Neill for her cheerful efficiency in tackling an endless stream of details and research leads.

It was a pleasure, as always, to work with the Prentice Hall crew: David Shafer, Jennifer Glennon, Michele Foresta, Judy Leale, Kim Marsden, and the unflappable Cindy Spreder.

Joyce S. Osland
David A. Kolb
Irwin M. Rubin Introduction to the Workbook

I hear and I forget
I see and I remember
I do and I understand
– CONFUCIUS

As teachers responsible for helping people learn about the field of organizational behavior, we have grappled with a number of basic educational dilemmas. Some of these dilemmas revolve around the issue of how to teach about this most important and intensely personal subject. The key concepts in organizational behavior (indeed, in social science in general) are rather abstract. It is difficult through the traditional lecture method to bring these ideas meaningfully to life. Other problems concern issues of what to teach, since the field of organizational behavior is large and continues to grow. Relevant concepts and theories come from a variety of disciplines, and no single course could begin to scratch the surface. Another dilemma is one of control. Who should be in control of the learning process? Who should decide what material is important to learn? Who should decide the pace at which learning should occur? Indeed, who should decide what constitutes learning? Our resolution of these and related dilemmas is contained within this book. The learning materials in this book are an application of the theory of experiential learning to the teaching and learning of organizational behavior. In this method, primary emphasis is placed upon learning from your own experience. Each of the chapters in the workbook begins with an introduction that raises key questions and provides a framework for your experiences in the unit. The core of each unit is an action-oriented behavioral simulation. The purpose of these exercises is to allow you to generate your own data about each of the key concepts to be studied. A format is provided to facilitate your ability to observe and share the personal reactions you have experienced, while the summaries at the end of each unit help to integrate the unit experiences and stimulate further questions and issues to be explored. If there is an overriding objective of the book, it is that you learn how to learn from all of your experiences and practice the skills required of effective employees. LEARNING ABOUT ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

It has been over 30 years since we first began developing and testing the feasibility of experiential learning methods for teaching organizational behavior. Our initial attempts to substitute exercises, games, and role plays for more traditional educational approaches were met in many quarters by polite skepticism and resistance. Today experiential learning approaches are an integral part of management school curricula and management training programs everywhere. During these years, the subject matter of organizational behavior has undergone much change as well. Some of this change has been subtle and quiet, involving the consolidation and implementation of trends that began years ago. Other changes have been more dramatic. New vital perspectives have come alive, reorganizing and redirecting research, theory, and teaching in the field. Still other trends loom on the horizon, as yet underdeveloped, pointing the way toward the future shape of the field.

As we began to work on this seventh edition, we felt that it was time to take stock of these changes so that we might faithfully, in new selection of topics and experiential exercises, portray the field of organizational behavior as it is today—a complex of vital themes enduring from the past, alive in the present, and emerging in the future. Such a stocktaking is difficult to achieve objectively. Organizational behavior is a vast field with indefinite boundaries overlapping sister disciplines of social psychology, sociology, and anthropology, and management fields such as operations research, business policy, and industrial relations. One could convincingly argue that any patterns one sees in such diversity and complexity lie more in the eye of the beholder than in objective reality. At the very least, where one stands in defining organizational behavior is greatly influenced by where one sits, by one's particular experience and orientation to the field. Recognizing that any organization of the field is constructed from a combination of objective reality and subjective preference, we nonetheless felt that there is value in making explicit our view of the field, since it was on the basis of that view that choices of topics and exercises were made. By understanding our view, you, as learners, may be better able to articulate your own agreements and disagreements, thereby helping to sort the actual state of the field from our individual viewpoints.

We have seen many changes we in the field in the last 60 years in six general areas: the way organizational behavioral is defined, the way management education is conducted, the field's perspective on the nature of persons, its view as to how human resources are to be managed, its perspective on organizations, and the nature of the change improvement process. In each of these areas there are three kinds of trends: historical foundations of trends, previous historical development that is now widely influential in shaping the field; contemporary trends, current research and development that is capturing the excitement and imagination of scholars and practitioners; and emerging trends, new issues and concerns that seem destined to shape the future of organizational behavior in research and practice.

DEFINITION OF THE FIELD
Paul Lawrence traces the origin of the field of organizational behavior back to the early 1940s. He cites as the first key contribution to the field the group climate experiments of Kurt Lewin and his associates in 1943. Early scholars in the field came from industrial and social psychology and later from sociology. Organizational behavior departments were housed administratively in business schools, but in general they maintained their separate identity from the profession of management. Today we see major changes in orientation as organizational behavior departments have become more integrated units within professional business schools. Most new faculty today have Ph.D.s in organizational behavior as opposed to basic disciplines, and interdisciplinary research around the managerial task has burgeoned. Concepts are now more often defined in managerial terms (e.g., work team development) as opposed to behavioral science terms (group dynamics).

Active developments in organizational behavior today involve the expansion of the field from an industrial—business focus to a wider application of behavioral science knowledge in other professional fields-health care management, law, public administration, education, and international development. Perhaps because of this expansion into more complex social and political institutions, an emerging trend is toward a focus on sociological and political concepts that increase our understanding of management in complex organizational environments. In recent years the issue of environmental determinism has been raised, an even more "macro" approach to organizations. The population ecologists study the rise and fall of organizations within an entire industry and maintain that it is the environment, rather than actions by humans, that influences organizations. There is an active intellectual debate in the field between those who see strategic leadership and choice as the determinant of organizational success and those who subscribe to the environmental determinist position.

PERSPECTIVE ON ORGANIZATIONS
Early work in organizational behavior took a somewhat limited view of organizations, being primarily concerned with job satisfaction and human fulfillment in work. The focus later expanded to include organizational productivity. For many years organizational research was aimed at internal functioning. This focus was broadened by the advent of open systems theory. Since organizations, to survive, must adapt to their environment, organizational functioning cannot be understood without examining organization-environment relationships. This led to the contingency theory of organizations, which states that there is no one best way to organize and manage; it depends on the environmental demands and corresponding tasks for the organization.

The open systems view of organizations leads to an impor...

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