Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology

9780130160621: Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology

This edition of this study of anatomy and physiology offers the maximum flexibility in the choice of topics. It features an art programme combined with a pedagogy and accurate scientific exposition. Illustrations, and boxes showing applications help students understand the relation of anatomy and physiology to everyday life.

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From the Publisher:

Martini is the only text designed specifically to meet the needs of today's diverse student population. It combines a unique and market-standard art program with flexible, rich pedagogy and clear, accurate scientific exposition. An outstanding and well-integrated multimedia package provides excellent classroom support and independent learning opportunities.

From the Inside Flap:


When the First Edition of Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology was published in 1989, the options available for presenting, studying, and applying principles of anatomy and physiology (A & P) were much more limited than they are today. Our knowledge base has also expanded tremendously. As we proceed into the new millennium, we know much more than ever before about the biochemical and molecular foundations of many normal physiological processes, we understand the molecular origins of many diseases, and we are close to completing an initial survey of the human genome. This enhanced understanding has led to the development of effective new treatments, protocols, and interventions to combat disease, reduce suffering, and promote good health. Many of these advances could not have been made if they were not preceded by improvements in the speed and reliability of computers. Modern technology, especially computers and the Internet, has changed our daily lives and is reshaping our societies in many ways.

The emerging medical technologies allow us to perform complex surgical procedures on individual organs or to target specific cells within an organ. We can manipulate the DNA within cells, and we can even clone genetically identical animals, although we are still unable to repair even the simplest genetic defect in humans. Many people are horrified by what we can now do with technology; others are intent on pushing ahead without a clear idea of the ultimate destination. Nevertheless, all of us are affected by modern technology. Technology has become a means for acquiring and distributing information, and medical professionals have learned to use technology to increase their effectiveness as well as to improve the quality of medical care.

By enhancing the availability of specific information, modern technology has affected how each of us deals with information in general. In many cases, rowing where to look for information is preferable to dying to memorize specific data. That is certainly the end in the training of medical and allied health professionals today. Students begin by mastering the technology and memorizing a substantial core of basic conceptual information. In the process, they are also given (1) a "mental framework" for organizing new information, (2) the ability to access additional information when needed, by consulting relevant print or electronic data sources, and (3) an understanding of how to apply their knowledge to solve particular problems. The same skills are equally important to people in other career paths. To be effective in almost any job today, you must know how to access and absorb new information, to use (or learn to use) available technology, and to solve problems.

The ultimate goal of any anatomy and physiology course should be to empower students to use their conceptual understanding to solve problems. Preparation for this goal involves a substantial amount of memorization, but the burden of memorization is reduced if the relevance of the information is evident. Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology has been designed to place the information in a meaningful context and to help students develop their problem-solving skills. The electronic enhancements, including the enclosed CD-ROM and the Companion Website, make it easy for students and instructors to use current technology to access and manage information. A & P TODAY

Over the last 5 years I have visited instructors and students at campuses throughout North America, Australia, and New Zealand. I have found that most instructors are aware of this relationship among information, technology, and problem solving. I have also found them seeking answers to similar questions, which could be summarized as follows:

How do I find the time? How much material should I teach? Which media should I use?

These questions are asked by college faculty members in all courses; in fact, a very similar set of questions is asked by students. (See "To the Student" on page xxix.) The situation is probably more troublesome in A & P than in other courses, because this is the first college-level science course many of these students will take. They must learn not only a new vocabulary but also new ways of studying and organizing information. For most instructors, teaching anatomy and physiology has never been more challenging; in addition to teaching terminology, facts, and concepts, instructors must help their students be good problem solvers. Mastering terminology, facts, and concepts is of little value if that mastery cannot be used to solve problems. It would be analogous to a person's knowing all the parts of an automobile and the concepts behind the internal combustion engine without being able to back the car out of the garage and drive it away.

The focus of this text and its support materials has been to simplify the teaching and learning of anatomy and physiology. In the revision process, I've tried to address each of the above questions.

How do I find the time? Nothing I can do can give any of us more time. But I have tried to help you make better use of the time you do have. My approach has been (1) to provide a range of options for reducing preparation time for classroom presentations, and (2) to improve the delivery of information in the text and supplements package so that it can assume more of the teaching load. How much material should I teach? The answer will vary from class to class and from instructor to instructor. Some courses have prerequisites, many others do not; some courses are taught to prenursing students, others to physical education students, and still others to general biology students. Few instructors cover all the material in the textbook. Therefore, I have tried to assist both instructors and students by making the chapter organization clear at the outset and by providing an internal structure that helps instructors decide—before they read the section—whether the material in it is relevant for their class. Sections can be assigned or skipped as needed without interrupting the flow of information. Which media should I use? Instructors vary widely in their need for media products. This variety reflects differences in teaching styles and in classroom facilities. I have visited schools where "multimedia" means colored chalk and other schools where every seat in the lecture hall has a response pad and a data port for a laptop computer. My answer to this question, then, is "How do you want to deliver the key information?" All lecturers rely on visual support of one kind or another. The resources available with this textbook run the gamut from transparencies to a videotape and laser disk, to digital video, and a CD-ROM with an Image Bank and PowerPoint Gallery of slides for computer presentations. For those interested in Web courseware, you can start simply and easily with the Syllabus Manager at the Companion Website to supplement the lecture or lab work, or use WebCT or Blackboard to design distance-learning or Web-based courses. The content is consistent across the various formats. For example, all art in the textbook is prepared by a team of two medical illustrators, so the art is consistent from figure to figure and chapter to chapter. That same art appears on the image bank, in the PowerPoint slides, and on the website, and it forms the basis for the animations and tutorials. In short, the key information is available to you, however you choose to deliver it.

I have often heard the statement "all A & P books are the same." Well, yes and no. All books in this market are about the same size and length, and they all have a similar organization, colorful illustrations, and an assortment of supplements. However, that does not mean that all A & P books are exactly alike, any more than all cars are alike simply because they all have engines and tires and can transport you from one place to another. This textbook has been designed to meet specific needs. How were those needs determined? Personal experience has helped, but no one person has a complete view of any situation. So, wherever and whenever possible, I have met with instructors and students to learn more about shared problems, solutions, and perspectives. Prentice Hall has sponsored student focus groups and instructor focus groups, giving me the opportunity to get direct feedback and to "test-drive" new features. I have received hundreds of letters, phone calls, and email messages from instructors and students with comments and suggestions about this textbook and its supplements. The result is a package that is more than just "reliable transportation"—it will help you negotiate the curves and avoid the potholes. The textbook's important and distinctive features are explained in "To the Student" (page xxix). I urge you to read it before your course gets under way. WHAT'S DIFFERENT ABOUT THE FIFTH EDITION

Each new edition requires some revising and updating, and that was certainly the case here. In the process, I reexamined the material within each chapter to see what steps could be taken to improve the delivery of information and clarify key concepts. This reexamination was the key to demonstrating the relevancy and applicability of the material, to integrating the components of the learning system more effectively, and to providing additional opportunities for enhancing student understanding during lectures, lab periods, and study times through the use of appropriate technologies. To give you an idea of the scope and nature of the changes, I will begin with changes to the textbook and then consider changes to the teaching and learning system as a whole. CHANGES TO THE NARRATIVE

The basic chapter sequence and organization of the text remains unchanged. However, in response to instructor and student feedback, I have streamlined the delivery of key physiological concepts and developed a new feature, called a Navigator, to help students keep track of their progress through the material. Simply put, a Navigator is a flow chart that includes the key topics covered within a section. This new feature is presented first as a full-size figure, accompanied by a narrative overview. It then reappears in simplified form each time the reader "steps" from one key topic to another. The Navigator concept, which sounds simple, actually entailed more than just creating new artwork and adding overviews. In some cases, it involved the resequencing of material and led to the creation of summary tables that review key concepts before the next "step" is taken. This approach is suitable neither for all topics nor for all chapters, but it is a big help in getting through tough sections that deal with abstract physiological concepts. For instance, Navigators are used in Chapters 12 (neurophysiology), 21 (cardiovascular physiology), 22 (immunity), 23 (respiratory physiology), and 25 (cellular metabolism). A comparable pattern of presentation—overview followed by blocks of text and art accompanied by summary tables—has been used throughout, even in chapters that do not contain Navigators. CHANGES TO THE ART PROGRAM

Both anatomical structures and physiological processes must be visualized if students are to understand them. One of the greatest strengths of the art program in this textbook has been that all illustrations in all chapters have been created by the same two medical illustrators: Bill Ober, M.D., and Claire Garrison, R.N. Their efforts in previous editions have resulted in awards from the Association of Medical Illustrators and from the Text and Academic Authors Association. Having one team responsible for the visual presentation of information ensures that structures and processes are depicted in a consistent manner from figure to figure and from chapter to chapter; Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology is the only A & P textbook that has a unified art program. (To learn more about Bill and Claire, please see their brief biographies on page iii.) We work together as the manuscript evolves, and they read key sections of the manuscript to make sure that the visual and narrative presentations are in alignment. In addition, we have been able to work with Ralph Hutchings, a biomedical photographer recently cited as one of the best photographers of the twentieth century for his anatomical portrayals of the human body. Bill and Claire have incorporated many new photos into the textbook and the Companion Atlas of the Applications Manual, and Ralph's photos appear in the textbook, and in the media, Companion Atlas, and lab manuals that accompany the Fifth Edition.

A detailed examination of virtually any chapter in the Fifth Edition will reveal both subtle and dramatic improvements and additions to the illustration program. Dramatic improvements in the art program for this edition include the following:

Chapters 7-9:New bone photographs have been supplied by Ralph Hutchings, and several photos have been enlarged. New views have been added, providing additional perspectives on the structure of the elbow, hip, and knee joints. Chapter 10: Several new illustrations have been added, and the sequence has been reordered to create visual links between succeeding figures and to help students better visualize the key aspects of muscle physiology. Chapter 11: New anatomical paintings have been included, depicting the muscles of the forearm and hip, and many figures have been enhanced and improved. Chapter 12: The art program for the neurophysiology section has been modified, with new Navigators and new art and illustrated tables linked to the discussions of graded potentials, action potentials, synaptic function, and neural processing. Chapters 13,14, 20, 21, 22, 26, and 28 (among others): New anatomical art and new physiological diagrams have been added to accompany a revised coverage of reflexes, cardiovascular function, immune function, and renal function. MEDIALABS

Each chapter of the Fifth Edition contains an integrated learning tool celled a MediaLab. These innovative sections have been developed with the assistance of Kate Flickinger, Ph.D., of Maui Community College. Kate has extensive research and teaching experience in anatomy and physiology and specializes in media use and instructional design. (Her brief biography appears on page iv.)

Although computers continue to become more available to both faculty and students, relatively few instructors have used Web-based assignments in an A&P course. The reasons are that (1) instructors don't have time to cover the material already in the course syllabus and text; (2) there is no demonstrable link between the URL provided and the course material that will affect student grades; and (3) there are no guidelines for time expenditure—students could wander an the Internet for hours, when they might be better off spending that time studying their textbook and lecture notes. MediaLabs address these concerns by providing specific, time-constrained exercises with clearly stated objectives that relate the Web-based activities to the core chapter content. It is our hope that this feature will enable instructors to capitalize on the wealth of Web-based content as it provides students with alternative learning opportunities. FORMAT AND DESIGN CHANGES

Introductory A & P students often need a lot of help with organizing and integrating the material, so this textbook offers a variety of pedagogical aids. The red figure locator dots, red checkmarks in Concept Check Questions, and Concept Link icons that distinguish this textbook from all others are important and effective learning aids that were, in many cases, suggested by students themselves. Focus-group p...

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