On Certainty (English and German Edition)

4.16 avg rating
( 3,436 ratings by Goodreads )
 
9780061316869: On Certainty (English and German Edition)

Written over the last 18 months of his life and inspired by his interest in G. E. Moore's defense of common sense, this much discussed volume collects Wittgenstein's reflections on knowledge and certainty, on what it is to know a proposition for sure.

"synopsis" may belong to another edition of this title.

About the Author:

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) was born in Austria and studied at Cambridge under Bertrand Russell. He volunteered to serve in the Austrian army at the outbreak of World War I, and in 1918 was captured and sent to a prison camp in Italy, where he finished his masterpiece, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, one of the most important philosophical works of all time. After the war Wittgenstein eventually returned to Cambridge to teach.

Excerpt. Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.:

On Certainty


1. If you do know that here is one hand,1 we'll grant you all the rest.
  When one says that such and such a proposicion can't be proved, of course that does not mean that it can't be derived from other propositions; any proposition can be derived from other ones. But they may be no more certain than it is itself. (On this a curious remark by H. Newman.)

2. From its seeming to me--or to everyone--to be so, it doesn't follow that it is so.
  What we can ask is whether it can make sense to doubt it.

3. If e.g. someone says "I don't know if there's a hand here" he might be told "Look closer".--This possibility of satisfying oneself is part of the language-game. Is one of its essential features.

4. "I know that I am a human being." In order to see how unclear the sense of this proposition is, consider its negation. At most it might be taken to mean "I know I have the organs of a human". (E.g. a brain which, after all, no one has ever yet seen.) But what about such a proposition as "I know I have a brain"? Can I doubt it? Grounds for doubt are lacking! Everything speaks in its favour, nothing against it. Nevertheless it is imaginable that my skull should turn out empty when it was operated on.

5. Whether a proposition can turn out false after all depends on what I make count as determinants for that proposition.

6. Now, can one enumerate what one knows (like Moore)? Straight off like that, I believe not.--For otherwise the expression "I know" gets misused. And through this misuse a queer and extremely important mental state seems to be revealed.

7. My life shews that I know or am certain that there is a chair over there, or a door, and so on.--I tell a friend e.g. "Take that chair over there", "Shut the door", etc. etc.

8. The difference between the concept of 'knowing' and the concept of 'being certain' isn't of any great importance at all, except where "I know" is meant to mean: I can't be wrong. In a law-court, for example, "I am certain" could replace "I know" in every piece of testimony. We might even imagine its being forbidden to say "I know" there. [A passage in Wilhelm Meister, where "You know" or "You knew" is used in the sense "You were certain", the facts being different from what he knew.]

9. Now do I, in the course of my life, make sure I know that here is a hand--my own hand, that is?

10. I know that a sick man is lying here? Nonsense! I am sitting at his bedside, I am looking attentively into his face.-So I don't know, then, that there is a sick man lying here? Neither the question nor the assertion makes sense. Any more than the assertion "I am here", which I might yet use at any moment, if suitable occasion presented itself.--Then is "2 x 2 = 4" nonsense in the same way, and not a proposition of arithmetic, apart from particular occasions? " 2 x 2 = 4" is a true proposition of arithmetic-not "on particular occasions" nor "always" but the spoken or written sentence "2 x 2. = 4" in Chinese might have a different meaning or be out and out nonsense, and from this is seen that it is only in use that the proposition has its sense. And "I know that there's a sick man lying here", used in an unsuitable situation, seems not to be nonsense but rather seems matter-of-course, only because one can fairly easily imagine a situation to fit it, and one thinks that the words "I know that . . . " are always in place where there is no doubt, and hence even where the expression of doubt would be unintelligible.

11. We just do not see how very specialized the use of "I know" is.

12. --For "I know" seems to describe a state of affairs which guarantees what is known, guarantees it as a fact. One always forgets the expression "I thought I knew".

13. For it is not as though the proposition "It is so" could be inferred from someone else's utterance: "I know it is so". Nor from the utterance together with its not being a lie.--But can't I infer "It is so" from my own utterance "I know etc."? Yes; and also "There is a hand there" follows from the proposition "He knows that there's a hand there". But from his utterance "I know . . . " it does not follow that he does know it.

14. That he does know takes some shewing.

15. It needs to be shewn that no mistake was possible. Giving the assurance "I know" doesn't suffice. For it is after all only an assurance that I can't be making a mistake, and it needs to be objectively established that I am not making a mistake about that.

16. "If I know something, then I also know that I know it , etc." amounts to: "I know that" means "I am incapable of being wrong about that". But whether I am so needs to be established objectively.

17. Suppose now I say "I'm incapable of being wrong about this: that is a book" while I point to an object. What would a mistake here be like? And have I any clear idea of it?

18. "I know" often means: I have the proper grounds for my statement. So if the other person is acquainted with the language game, he would admit that I know. The other, if he is acquainted with the language-game, must be able to imagine how, one may know something of the kind.

"About this title" may belong to another edition of this title.

Top Search Results from the AbeBooks Marketplace

1.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig
Published by Harper & Row
ISBN 10: 0061316865 ISBN 13: 9780061316869
New PAPERBACK Quantity Available: > 20
Seller:
Mediaoutlet12345
(Springfield, VA, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description Harper & Row. PAPERBACK. Book Condition: New. 0061316865 *BRAND NEW* Ships Same Day or Next!. Bookseller Inventory # SWATI2132259614

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
8.07
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: 3.02
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

2.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig
ISBN 10: 0061316865 ISBN 13: 9780061316869
New Quantity Available: > 20
Seller:
Paperbackshop-US
(Wood Dale, IL, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description 1972. PAP. Book Condition: New. New Book. Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. Established seller since 2000. Bookseller Inventory # VC-9780061316869

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
9.27
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: 3.02
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

3.

Ludwig Wittgenstein, G. H. Von Wright
Published by HarperCollins Publishers Inc, United States (2001)
ISBN 10: 0061316865 ISBN 13: 9780061316869
New Paperback Quantity Available: 10
Seller:
The Book Depository
(London, United Kingdom)
Rating
[?]

Book Description HarperCollins Publishers Inc, United States, 2001. Paperback. Book Condition: New. G. E. M. Anscombe (illustrator). Harper Torchboo.. Language: German . Brand New Book. The volume is full of thought-provoking insight which will prove a stimulus both to further study and to scholarly disagreement. Bookseller Inventory # AAC9780061316869

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
12.47
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: FREE
From United Kingdom to U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

4.

Ludwig Wittgenstein, G. H. Von Wright
Published by HarperCollins Publishers Inc, United States (2001)
ISBN 10: 0061316865 ISBN 13: 9780061316869
New Paperback Quantity Available: 10
Seller:
Book Depository hard to find
(London, United Kingdom)
Rating
[?]

Book Description HarperCollins Publishers Inc, United States, 2001. Paperback. Book Condition: New. G. E. M. Anscombe (illustrator). Harper Torchboo.. Language: German . This book usually ship within 10-15 business days and we will endeavor to dispatch orders quicker than this where possible. Brand New Book. The volume is full of thought-provoking insight which will prove a stimulus both to further study and to scholarly disagreement. Bookseller Inventory # BZE9780061316869

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
12.47
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: FREE
From United Kingdom to U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

5.

Ludwig Wittgenstein, G. H. Von Wright
Published by HarperCollins Publishers Inc, United States (2001)
ISBN 10: 0061316865 ISBN 13: 9780061316869
New Paperback Quantity Available: 10
Seller:
The Book Depository US
(London, United Kingdom)
Rating
[?]

Book Description HarperCollins Publishers Inc, United States, 2001. Paperback. Book Condition: New. G. E. M. Anscombe (illustrator). Harper Torchboo.. Language: German . Brand New Book. The volume is full of thought-provoking insight which will prove a stimulus both to further study and to scholarly disagreement. Bookseller Inventory # AAC9780061316869

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
12.74
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: FREE
From United Kingdom to U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

6.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig
Published by Harper Collins Publishers
ISBN 10: 0061316865 ISBN 13: 9780061316869
New Quantity Available: > 20
Seller:
INDOO
(Avenel, NJ, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description Harper Collins Publishers. Book Condition: New. Brand New. Bookseller Inventory # 0061316865

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
10.20
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: 2.65
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

7.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig
ISBN 10: 0061316865 ISBN 13: 9780061316869
New Quantity Available: > 20
Seller:
Pbshop
(Wood Dale, IL, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description 1972. PAP. Book Condition: New. New Book.Shipped from US within 10 to 14 business days. Established seller since 2000. Bookseller Inventory # IB-9780061316869

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
10.26
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: 3.02
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

8.

Ludwig Wittgenstein
Published by Harper & Row (1972)
ISBN 10: 0061316865 ISBN 13: 9780061316869
New Paperback Quantity Available: > 20
Seller:
Murray Media
(North Miami Beach, FL, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description Harper & Row, 1972. Paperback. Book Condition: New. Never used!. Bookseller Inventory # 0061316865

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
12.80
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: 1.51
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

9.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig
Published by Harper Perennial 9/6/1972 (1972)
ISBN 10: 0061316865 ISBN 13: 9780061316869
New Paperback or Softback Quantity Available: 5
Seller:
BargainBookStores
(Grand Rapids, MI, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description Harper Perennial 9/6/1972, 1972. Paperback or Softback. Book Condition: New. On Certainty. Book. Bookseller Inventory # BBS-9780061316869

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
15.42
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: FREE
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

10.

Ludwig Wittgenstein
ISBN 10: 0061316865 ISBN 13: 9780061316869
New Quantity Available: 5
Seller:
ReadWhiz
(Portland, OR, U.S.A.)
Rating
[?]

Book Description Book Condition: New. Bookseller Inventory # ria9780061316869_ing

More Information About This Seller | Ask Bookseller a Question

Buy New
16.24
Convert Currency

Add to Basket

Shipping: FREE
Within U.S.A.
Destination, Rates & Speeds

There are more copies of this book

View all search results for this book