Trade Paperback. The monastic reform movements in France and Germany in the tenth and early eleventh centuries revived the study of Church law and from 1049 on, a series of German Popes began to apply the moral and legal principles of these movements to the clergy at large. Two particular abuses were the marriage or concubinage of clergy (Nicolaitism) and simony, the purchase of Church offices or sacraments by money or by illicit obligations. To uproot these practices and restore cononical order, the reformer popes forbade lay investiture, which had long been a practice; this allowed lay magnates to install newly elected prelates to secular rights and possessions of their churches. This turned into the right to invest into the power to appoint, which subverted the process of canonical election, and sold the offics to the highest bidder to those who could be counted on for fiscal or political support. This controversy, which was very complex and involved, raged, until settled in 1122 with the Concordat of Worms. (Information from the Introduction.) 132 pages. 9.25 x 6.25 inches. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1971.
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Book Description Holt McDougal, 1971. Paperback. Book Condition: New. book. Bookseller Inventory # M0030851564